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Silk in the Indian subcontinent is a luxury good. In India, about 97% of the raw mulberry silk is produced in the five Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir. Mysore and North Bangalore , the upcoming site of a US$20 million "Silk . The warp and weft used were of two different materials (silk and cotton. IndusDiva Blue Nuapatna Cotton Handloom Saree: negeriku.info: Clothing & Accessories. Dating back to the ancient capital of Odisha, Cuttack, Nuapatna handloom Silk used is Bangalore (20/22 denier degummed) or Maldah Silk (30 /33). importance with history dating back to a few thousand years. It is a- yarn Silk Board, Bangalore, October, , p.l. fibres which comprises cotton and silk, production of silk exported consist of sarees, silk plain shirting cloth and jocket.
My rendezvous with Mysore grew into a dear tale of delightful shopping experiences. Nohing could match the exceptional collection of Mysore. Armed with a water bottle, head scarf and glares, off we went on Mysore shopping spree! Apart from its palaces, Mysore is also popular for its sweets, silks and Sandalwood These were our favourite purchases and some of the fondest possessions: Guru Sweet Mart prides itself in preserving the tradition and flavours of the original recipe as it is run by the descendants of the royal cook who invented this masterpiece.
A range of variations of the dessert in texture and flavour also took me by surprise here. The sinful sweet, Mysore pak Photo Credit: Mysore silk is known all over the world for its super fine fabric and a soft texture.
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Vibrant colours, soft texture and pleasant lustre, Mysore sarees are elegance materialized and after one hour of browsing through the multitude of pieces, I finally bought my saree and decided to wear it on the wedding, ditching the dress I had initially planned to wear!
Handicrafts Mysore handicrafts range from sandalwood and rosewood art pieces like wall hangings, corner tables and other furniture, to stone sculptures, paintings and incense sticks.
Also, on our way to the Chamundi Hills we found a number of vendors selling wooden handicrafts. The Indian motifs were greatly influenced by nature like the sun, moon, stars, rivers, trees, flowers, birds etc. The figural and geometrical motifs such as trees, lotus flower, bulls, horses, lions, elephants, peacocks, swans, eagles, the sun, stars, diagonal or zigzag lines, squares, round shapes, etc. Indian weaver predominantly used a wide variety of classical motifs such as the swan hamsathe lotus kamalathe tree of life kulpa, vrikshathe vase of plenty purna, kumbhathe elephant hathithe lion simhaflowing floral creepers lata patrapeacocks mayur and many more.
Mythical creatures such as winged lions, centaurs, griffins, decorative of ferocious animals, animals formally in profile or with turned heads, animals with human figures in combat or represented in roundels were also commonly used motifs. These motifs have remained in existence for more than two thousand years.
However, new patterns have consistently been introduced; sometimes some of these are even an amalgamation of the existing patterns.
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Such attempts at evolving new designs were particularly noticeable from the 10th century onwards, when patterns were altered to meet the specific demands of the Muslim rulers. The bull or the swan, arranged between vertical and diagonal stripes can still be found in the silk jamawar saris of India. Patterns with small flowers and two-coloured squares chess board design are seen, used both as a garment and as furnishing material — bed spreads with same kind of pattern are still woven in some parts of Gujarat.
Jamawar dating back to the Mughal era however contained big, bold and realistic patterns, which were rather simple with ample space between the motifs. The designs stood out prominently against the background of the cloth. Complex patterns were developed only when additional decorative elements were included in the basic pattern.
During later periods, the gap between the motifs was also filled with smaller motifs or geometrical forms. The iris and narcissus flowers became the most celebrated motifs of this era and were combined with tulips, poppies, primulas, roses and lilies.
A lot of figurative motifs were also used in the Mughal era such as deer, horses, butterflies, peacocks and insects. The Mughal kings played a vital role in the enhancement of jamawar by putting their inspirations into the cloth's designing and visiting the weavers on a regular basis to supervise its making.
Shining, decorative pallus were jals were the main designs of this time. The borders were usually woven with silk and zari. After the Mughal period, the figurative motifs were discouraged by the Muslims and more floral and paisleys were introduced. However, inspiration was taken from these figurative motives and put into designs as in the case of using only the peacock feathers instead of the complete figure.
Another big change was brought about inwhere the source of inspiration was the Chinese Shanghai cloth. The patterns of the Chinese Shanghai were amended in accordance to the weave construction of the jamawar cloth and introduced in the cloth.
This proved to be a very successful change and is still appreciated by many. In recent years, the Indian government has attempted a modest revival of this art by setting up a shawl-weaving centre at Kanihama in Kashmir.
Efforts to revive this art have also been made by bringing in innovations like the creation of jamawar saris by craftsmen in Varanasi.
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Each sari is a shimmering tapestry of intricate design, in colours that range from the traditionally deep, rich shades to delicate pastels. A minimum of four months of patient effort goes into the creation of each jamawar sari.
Many of the jamawar saris now have matching silk shawls attached to them, creating elegant ensembles fit for royalty. Weaving of jamawar in Pakistan[ edit ] Pakistan makes its own yarn from the imported cocoons that come from China.
The yarn is cultivated in areas like Orangi and Shershah in Karachi which is then sold to the weavers. The pure silk yarn, before it can be used, has to undergo treatment such as bleaching or washing in soap and then dyeing.
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In its raw state, the silk is hard due to the sericlan; therefore it has to be removed. A single filament of the silk yarn is not strong enough to be woven on its own; therefore, it needs to be twisted in order to give it strength and hold. A specific person who is called a naqsha-bandh first draws the patterns or designs on paper which are then transferred on a graph paper on a comparatively much bigger scale.
Every square in the graph signifies a specific number of threads on the loom. The unfinished, rough ideas and sketches are provided to these naqsha-bandhs by the wholesalers and are thus plotted on the graph.
The use of various threads in the pattern such as zari, resham, polyester, etc. The wholesalers later decide the main colours and this information are forwarded to the weavers. The naqsha-bandhs do not have say in the designing of the motifs and patterns. They do what they are told to do.
The designs and patterns are then transferred from the graph paper on a wooden frame and are referred to as the naqsha. The naqsha that is made with cotton threads is a smaller sample of the actual design, which is to be woven on the loom.
The warp is then taken for the weaving process, which is carried out, on various looms such as the pit loom, jacquard loom and power loom. There is a vast difference between the outputs of the three types of looms. The power looms cannot match the intricacy that can be achieved using the pit or jacquard loom.
This is the reason for the far superior workmanship that can be found in the earlier designs dating back to the Mughal era. Significant regions of silk[ edit ] Main article: Assam silk Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden muga, white pat and warm eri silk.
The Assam silk industry, now centred in Sualkuchiis a labour-intensive industry. In Karnataka, silk is mainly grown in the Mysore district. In the second half of the 20th century, it revived and the Mysore State became the top multivoltine silk producer in India. From the past Kanchipuram silk sarees stand out from others due to its intricate weaving patterns and the quality of the silk itself.
Kanchipuram silk sarees are large and heavy owing to the zari work on the saree. Kanchipuram attracts large number of people, both from India and abroad, who come specifically to buy the silk sarees.
Most of the sarees are still hand woven by workers in the weaving unit. More than families still indulge in silk weaving. In the noted film director Priyadarshan made a Tamil film Kanchivaram about the silk weavers of the town during the pre-independence period. The saris are among the finest saris in India and are known for their gold and silver brocade or zari, fine silk and opulent embroidery. The saris are made of finely woven silk and are decorated with intricate design, and, because of these engravings, are relatively heavy.
Their special characteristics are Mughal inspired designs such as intricate intertwining floral and foliate motifs, kalga and bel, a string of upright leaves called jhallar at the outer, edge of border is a characteristic of these saris.
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Other features are gold work, compact weaving, figures with small details, metallic visual effects, pallus, jal a net like patternand mina work. The saris are often part of an Indian bride's trousseau. Depending on the intricacy of its designs and patterns, a sari can take from 15 days to a month and sometimes up to six months to complete. Banarasi saris are mostly worn by Indian women on important occasions such as when attending a wedding and are expected to be complemented by the woman's best jewellery.
It has always been a big textile centre of silk weaving. European travellers like Marco Polo — and Tavernier do not mention the manufacture of brocades in Banaras.
Ralph Fitch —91 describes Banaras as a thriving sector of the cotton textile industry.