The 10 Best Short Story Collections You've Never Read
In Philippine culture, courtship is far more subdued and indirect unlike in some . Let me contrast that with a story here in Tacloban, Leyte (Eastern Visayas). Pasalubong is more than simply a souvenir or gift, with layers of meaning and ritual behind the word. at the Institute of Philippine Culture and professorial lecturer at the the northern Philippines' Ilocos region; dates from Saudi Arabia; a If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly negeriku.info features. Many Filipinos still cling to the traditional practices, beliefs and traditions. The lucky dates of the twelve months of the year are the following: January 1, 3, 4, .. 24) A two-story building that is remodeled into a single story will shorten the lives .
They usually come out at 12 noon for an hour and during the night. Filipinos always mutter words "tabi-tabi po" or "bari-bari apo ma ka ilabas kami apo" asking them to excuse themselves for bothering the Duwendes.
Filipinos would leave food on the floor, so that the duwende residing or guarding the house would not be angry with them.
They also take your things,and laugh at you when you try to find it. They give it back when they feel like it,or when you tell them to please give it back.
The monkeys thought he was long dead because of his laziness. He is described as the laziest man on earth. Bungisngis is a one-eyed giant.
This Philippine folklore giant lives in forest and woods. It is a happy and a playful cyclops. It is also commonly known as 'Mahentoy' in the northern part of Davao.
Ekek are creatures who are bird-like humans. They are winged-humans who at night search for victims. They hunger for flesh and blood. In American Literature, it is like a vampire. A Filipino bigfoot, it scares away little children who play at night. If you're stuck in a place and you keep going around in circles, you're said to be played around by a Kapre. To escape its control, you must remove your t-shirt, and wear it inside-out. A Sarimanok known as Magaul is associated with the legend of Malakas and Maganda.
Magaul was the Sarimanok bird that pecked the bamboo from where Malakas and Maganda were born from. They are said to have sprung from a large bamboo tree pecked by a Sarimanok known as Magaul.
The manaul is a mythical king who became a bird. He was believed to have caused the seas and the skies to fight against each other. The clash between the seas and skies resulted to the formation of the Philippine islands. They attract fishermen and tourists. Sirenas are reportedly often seen ashore by fishermen, especially in the towns bordering the Pacific Ocean.
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Siyokoy are mermen, sea creatures that have a human form and scaled bodies. The Siyokoy is the male counterpart of the Sirena. The lower extremities of a Philippine merman can either be a fishtail or scaled legs and webbed feet. They could also have long, green tentacles. They drown mortals for food. Siyokoys have gill slits, are colored brown or green, and have scaly skin, comparable to that of a fish. Comic books like Trese, Skyworld and The Mythology Class, based on the Filipino mythology, are very popular with the youth.
TV shows like Marina, and video games often feature creatures and stories from mythology. There is also a group called questers, who travel to remote locales, researching the fantastic legends and myths. It has a horse's head, the body of a human but with the feet of the horse. It travels at night to rape female mortals. The raped women will then give birth to more tikbalang.
They are also believed to cause travelers to lose their way particularly in mountainous or forest areas. Tikbalangs are very playful with people, and they usually make a person imagine things that aren't real. Sometimes a Tikbalang will drive a person crazy. Legends say that when rain falls while the sun is shining, a pair of Tikbalangs are being wed.
Since horses only arrived in the Philippine archipelago during the Spanish colonization thus, the borrowed term 'kabayo'there is a theory that the image of a half-horse, half-man creature was propagated by the conquistadors to keep the natives afraid of the night.
There are stories claiming that the Tikbalang are actually half-bird, half-man creatures, much like the Japanese tengu. They can provide a person who steps on their shelter with good luck or misfortune. Superstitious Filipinos, when passing by a mound, will ask the resident nuno's permission to let them pass with the phrase, "Tabi-tabi po".
Strange and sudden illnesses that befall a person are sometimes attributed to nunos. It eats babies by means of passing their long tongue through a small hole from the roof of a house. The sharp end of the tongue touches the mother's navel to suck the blood of the fetus or unborn child. This creature's name was derived from the Filipino word, tanggal, which means "to separate" because of the manananggal's ability to separate itself from its lower body.
Manananggals are sometimes referred to as tik-tik, the sound it makes while flying. Folklore dictates that the fainter the sound, the nearer the manananggal is.
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This is to confuse the victim. Black cats and crows often signal a tik-tik's presence, and deformed faces or bodies in children are allegedly signs of the aftermath of a tik-tik attack.
To feed, the self-segmenter chooses an isolated place where she will leave her lower torso while she hunts at night. When she separates from her lower torso, she then gains her ability to fly. She then goes off in search of houses where pregnant women reside.
Upon choosing a suitable victim, the Manananggal alights on the house and inserts her tongue through the roof. The tongue is long, hollow and extremely flexible.
She uses it to puncture the womb of the sleeping woman and to suck out the fetus. At other times, she seduces men with her beauty and lures them to a private place before eating them alive.
She usually eats the insides, like the heart, stomach or the liver. Sunlight is deadly to the Manananggal when she is in her monstrous form. Should her two halves still be separate with the coming of dawn, she will be destroyed. According to legend, to destroy the Manananggal, one should search for the lower torso that she leaves behind during her nightly hunts. Small containers of salt, ash and raw rice, and the smell of burning rubber are said to deter the Manananggal from approaching one's house.
A Mambabarang is a kind of a mangkukulam. Mambabarangs are ordinary human beings with black magic who torture and later kill their victims by infesting their bodies with insects. They are different from Mangkukulams - the latter only inflict pain or illness. Mambabarangs use a strand of hair from their chosen victim and tie it to the bugs or worms which they will use as a medium.
When they prick the bug, the victim immediately experiences the intended effect. This bewitcher is also called manggagaway. The Mangkukulam uses dark magic. Mangkukulam controls insects and uses them to harm people. The difference between a mambabarang and a mangkukulam is that the mambabarang uses magical insects to bring harm to his victims.
These insects are released after incantations, when they will search for their supposed victim and burrow under the skin, impregnating her. After some time, matruculans return to the house to kill the pregnant mother, open her abdomen, and eat the growing fetus. A wakwak is a witch or night bird belonging to a witch.
Also said to be a vampire like creature who can take the form of a night bird.
LOVE, COURTSHIP IN FILIPINO CULTURE
A number of shaman, mananambals good and evil witches and warlocks and sorcerers are said to live in Sant Antonio. Sorcery mingled with elements of Catholicism thrives on Siquijor. Many rituals and potions involve the use of lighting teeth, tooth-shaped pieces of basalt that are said to appear at the base of trees struck by lightning.
Wooden amulets often have sweet, earthy-smelling herbs mixed with lightning teeth. Gayuma love potions work if you apply it to the forehead of the person you are hoping to woo. Some concoction have more than a hundred herbs.
The biggest events are cockfights. During Holy Week tang alap rituals are conducted. Then she began casting spells to heal her client. The water became murky — a sign, she said, that she was removing the malaise. She repeated the process until the water was clear. Throughout the Philippines, mention of this place instantly conjures images of healers, witches and demons. One gruesome tale features a vampire that splits in two, its upper torso flying from rooftop to rooftop, devouring fetuses out of pregnant women.
Magic in Siquijor consists mainly of traditional beliefs that have existed in the Philippines for centuries. When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century and introduced Catholicism, locals began to blend ancient practices with their newfound religion. All their potions for the year are brewed in the week leading up to Easter. Father Larry Catubig, the senior Catholic priest on the island, said he realized the complicated nature of proselytizing to religiously devout witches.
It's not unusual for gravestones in Siquijor to have pieces missing — stone angels without heads or perhaps a stump where a cross once stood. Often it's the work of "black witches" looking to enhance their brew. Cayetano Umbalsa, 76, has been practicing witchcraft since his father began teaching him almost 60 years ago. Although he is well-versed in the healing spells, people come to him mainly for his proficiency in the dark arts. Jealous spouses and scorned lovers make up the bulk of such clients.
The spells range from one to make your ex-lover constantly remember your face to those to cause sickness and even death. The black witches command steep fees: The witches who limit their work to healing often ask for a small donation of a few dollars. Retana, a retired surgeon at the Siquijor town hospital, has seen sick people spend months hoping to be healed by witches only to eventually seek treatment at the hospital.
But Quezon defends witchcraft. Last month he went to a witch because of a skin condition that wouldn't go away.
A long time ago, there were two Gods - Maguayan, ruler of water, and Kaptan, ruler of the sky. One day, the two Gods decided to marry their children. Three sons were born from this union - Likalibutan was extremely brave and strong, Liadlao was made of gold and was always cheerful, and Libulan, made of copper, was timid and weak. Lisuga was the only daughter, she was made of silver and was very beautiful, gentle and sweet.
Sadly, they were orphaned at a young age, but their grandparents took care of them and protected them from evil. Eventually, the siblings grew up to be strong and beautiful. Scared of their brother, Liadlao and Libulan were coerced into joining him and they left for the sky kingdom. An enormous steel gate was blocking their way, but Likalibutan summoned the wind and knocked it down.
When Kaptan came to know of this, he got furious and fired them with lightning bolts. A lightning bolt landed on each of the three brothers. Likalibutan's rock-like body fragmented into a thousand pieces and fell down in the sea, Liadlao and Libulan melted into balls of gold and copper, respectively. Her silver body too, was scattered into a million pieces.
Kaptan then called Maguayan, accusing him of planning the whole thing. But Maguayan had been sleeping through the entire ordeal and didn't have the slightest clue. Kaptan eventually calmed down, and both the gods deeply mourned the loss of their grandchildren.
Sadly, even with all their powers, they couldn't bring the siblings to life. So, they gave each of them light, except for Likalibutan. Luminous with this light, Liadlao became the Sun, Libulan, the Moon and Lisuga's fragmented body can be seen today as the stars.
Kaptan planted a seed on a fragment of Likalibutan's body. A bamboo tree sprouted out of this seed and from this tree, Sikalak, a man and Sikabay, a woman, emerged. While there is gender equality in the Philippines, there is great appreciation for gentlemanly manners of giving way to women while walking or offering seats. Based on income and wealth, Filipinos, can generally be classified into upper class, middle class and the lower class or the poor.
While the very rich or upper class comprise of a very small percentage of the population, they own or earn the majority of the wealth of the country. A sizable amount of Filipinos employed overseas are able to sustain their family through overseas remittance. The Philippines is predominantly Roman Catholic. There are Catholic Chapels and Mosques in the shopping malls.
During those times, people are involved in church activities and family life so do not expect them to do business or work. The Philippines is one of the most ethnically diverse population in the world. With 7, islands, about eleven languages and eighty-seven dialects are spoken in the Philippines. There are strong ties for people of the same ethnic groups.
There are also varied pockets of indigenous population in remote hilly and mountain areas. However, there is still work to be done to achieve true gender equality, and it is particularly challenging to address among families with limited resources who tend to prioritize opportunities for their sons over their daughters.
Filipino society can be broadly categorized into three classes; the powerful and affluent elite, the small but growing middle class, and the lower class. The poor and lower income classes make up over a half of the households of the Philippines but account for less than a quarter of the wealth. The Philippines is a deeply religious country, with a large majority of the population being Roman Catholic.
There are a number of other Christian groups along Hindus, Buddhists and non-religious groups. Religion is extremely important to Filipinos, and it permeates many aspects of both personal and work life.
Prayers are common before events, conferences and some meetings. Sunday is a day for religion and family and it is disrespectful to ask someone to work this day. The Philippines is one of the most diverse countries in terms of ethnicity.
Ethnic identity is based on a number of factors, two of the most significant being regionality and language.
While Filipino based on Tagalog and English are the national language, the Philippines has over different languages. Locals often speak their mother tongue depending on what region they are from amongst one another but will switch to Filipino or English depending on who is present. It is also common to hear mixing both English and Filipino. How important is it to establish a personal relationship with a colleague or client before getting to business? Building personal relationship is very important to Filipinos.
Trust is key in establishing work or business relationships. Spending time with colleagues during coffee break and lunch times is a good opportunity to get to know more about the staff.
Not only will the staff be at ease and relaxed in such an informal situation but Filipinos generally enjoy eating and taking snacks. Filipinos like to be addressed formally with their titles such as Attorney, Doctor, Professor, Director, etc. It is important to establish an amiable relationship before getting to business.
Building trust is essential before you can expect to have effective work relationships. Showing respect for the other, and humility, is important in building trust. Take opportunities to engage in informal conversations with your team members, for example during breaks or if you are invited to social events. Cultural Information - Privileges and Favouritism Question: Would a colleague or employee expect special privileges or considerations given our personal relationship or friendship?
Filipinos would generally expect special privileges or considerations given their personal relationship or friendships, among other co-Filipinos but not with non-Filipinos. This behaviour is entrenched in the many interrelated Filipino values and core beliefs.
These Filipino values and beliefs are not expected from non-Filipinos. What is important in the work place is to be firm and transparent about expectations, operational procedures and standards. It is not uncommon for a local colleague or employee to expect favours from one another but this is less likely with a foreigner.
There may be an expectation for leniency in work or timelines based on your personal friendship, but this is unlikely to extend to more significant personal favours. Recruitment at times can be challenging as oftentimes there is sometimes an expectation to recruit those with ties either to family or friends of employees, or to provide opportunities to long-standing employees of the organization who may not be qualified or suited for the position.
Transparency with staff is important during any dealing, ensuring that you are following organizational protocols and standards. I have a work-related problem with a colleague. Do I confront him or her directly?
Apart from presents, the Cebuano version of the pamamanhikan includes bringing in musicians. Therefore, marrying well "enhances the good name" of both families.
A depiction of a mestizo couple from the Tagalog region during the 19th century. Apart from the general background explained above, there are other similar and unique courting practices adhered to by Filipinos in other different regions of the Philippine archipelago. In the island of Luzonthe Ilocanos also perform serenading, known to them as tapat  literally, "to be in front of" the home of the courted womanwhich is similar to the harana  and also to the balagtasan of the Tagalogs. The suitor begins singing a romantic song, then the courted lady responds by singing too.
The suitor initiates, the lady responds. As the Pamamaalam stage sets in, the suitor sings one last song and the haranistas disappear in the night.
The 10 Best Short Story Collections You've Never Read
Rooster courtship is also another form of courting in Luzon. In this type of courtship, the rooster is assigned that task of being a " middleman ", a "negotiator", or a "go-between", wherein the male chicken is left to stay in the home of the courted to crow every single morning for the admired lady's family. At midnight, the suitor goes beneath the nipa huta house that is elevated by bamboo poles, then prickles the admired woman by using a pointed object. Once the prickling caught the attention of the sleeping lady, the couple would be conversing in whispers.
The house for the Filipino males is called the Ato, while the house for Filipino females is known as the olog or agamang. The males visit the females in the olog — the "betrothal house" — to sing romantic songs. The females reply to these songs also through singing. The ongoing courtship ritual is overseen by a married elder or a childless widow who keeps the parents of the participating males and females well informed of the progress of the courtship process.
A procession, composed of the groom's mother, father, relatives, godfathersgodmothersbridesmaidsand groomsmenoccurs. Their purpose is to bring the cooking ingredients for the celebration to the bride's home, where refreshments await them. When they are in the half process of the courtship, they are forced to make a baby  Pangasinan region[ edit ] In Pangasinanthe Pangasinenses utilizes the taga-amo, which literally means "tamer", a form of love potions or charms which can be rubbed to the skin of the admired.
It can also be in the form of drinkable potions. The suitor may also resort to the use of palabas, meaning show or dramawherein the Filipino woman succumbs to revealing her love to her suitor, who at one time will pretend or act as if he will be committing suicide if the lady does not divulge her true feelings.
This is known as liberal courtship or mahal-alay in the vernacular. This form of courting assists in assessing the woman's feeling for her lover.