view of the hand and arm in piano playing position, revealing the mechanical . The whole problem of technique, so far as I was concerned, hinged on was still the fashion dating from Mozart's time to play in a clipped, abrupt manner.". I can do large broken chords with no problem (via rolling method) and can .. c) Should I be keeping my hand/finger position constant for all keys when for all of my repertoire to date to fit the narrower keys and would also. piano technique (such as hand position, approach to finger exercises, articulation , This is called hammer-bounce and this is a problem with all early pianos which is .. Dealing with pianos of this date you absolutely have to use the same .
Kids Piano Melodies encourages children to explore music in a new and creative way by helping a band of friendly monsters to prepare their concert. Edujoy apps complement what children are learning in school and kindergarten and enhance their learning ability. Parents can rest easy, knowing their children are learning and enjoying themselves in a safe way.
Learn your favourite melodies on the piano. This piano app plays a new notes, then you try to copy it. And then a few more notes, and soon you will be playing the entire melody. There are nearly a songs to choose from. The best pop, rock, dance, TV and film themes and classical songs are all there. Each song individually modified to bring out the simple melody to aid learning and playing by ear. Tin Pan Rhythm lets anyone create music and absorb musical concepts along the way.
A playful, fluid interface lets you experiment with chords and arrangement choices without ever breaking the beat. You can use your creations as practice loops for real-life instruments or even as inspiration for songwriting. We like to think of Piano By Number as a missing step in kid's piano lessons.
So many kids start piano only to find, after a while, that it is no fun. Conventional piano lessons restrict kids to reading music, and the element of fun, so important to kids, is lost. Reading music, no matter how gently presented, is a very demanding activity for young brains with hemispheres only starting to work independently.
Parents love Piano By Number as starting platform, because they can see their child enter into the world of music without stress and failure. Better Ears Why we love Better Ears: Better Ears is an app that teaches you music theory while enhancing your hearing through training exercises.
With 13 different exercise modes, Better Ears will train you to hear, play and read music in a simple and intuitive way. Better Ears bundles theory and application into one easy-to-use package. There are no rules as to how you practice, you just go for it. Complete Ear Trainer is the ultimate ear training app for musicians that will help develop your relative pitch to the full by improving your aural skills and your music theory knowledge, bettering many aspects of your life as a musician be it regarding improvisation, composition, arrangement, interpretation, singing, or playing in a band.
The app is designed like a video game and with strong pedagogical concepts in mind. Add to this the beautiful user interface and you'll have the more complete, the more effective and the nicest way to train your ear while feeling like you're playing a video game. MyPiano is so easy to use, in fact you'll be able to actually start playing Piano immediately after your first go with the app. No logins, no entering personal information or any configuration. The app only displays the key features on the screen: Another user favourite is the app's versatility.
There are many advanced features, including recording voice and performance, saving, loading, changing other options like adding effects and changing instruments. The app helps to develop memory, concentration, imagination and creativity as well as motor skills, intellect, sensory and speech. The whole family can develop their musical talent and composing songs together!
Virtual musical instruments have been popular from the moment touchscreen phones were invented. Piano musical keyboard is without doubt the most popular one. What this virtual piano app has to offer is a musical keyboard with simple design and easy to use interface. This app is incredibly fun and easy and you can begin playing your first piano piece in minutes! Thousands of free sheet music, top quality video lessons or even piano games, just play at your own pace in your preferred way, whenever and wherever you want!
With 50 million downloads on Google Play, this app is one of the most efficient instrument apps and games for your phone! Yokee Piano Why we love Yokee's Piano app: With new free songs added every day, you can learn new tunes, perfect your favourites, share them with the world and even challenge your friends to see who is the better pianist. The Chord Wheel brings the practical knowledge of chord theory to your fingertips.
Almost all popular music has at its foundation a chord progression and understanding what chords are being leveraged is essential to understanding a given composition or composer. Are all the chords in a given key? Does the key change? How do I write songs that convey this type of feel? If you want to understand how progressions work, get yourself a Chord Wheel. The perennial best-seller for over 15 years. Perfect Piano is an intelligent piano simulator design for phones and tablets.
With in-built genuine piano timbre, this app can teach you how to play piano and give you endless entertainment when you need it most!
My Piano Phone is a music app designed for phone and tablet. The app allows you to play Piano, Guitar, Trumpet, Violin and Drum with amazing lifelike and realistic sound quality. Start your own band, get the best guitars and pianos, and dance to win millions of fans! Take the stage now and play your way to victory in Piano Dance Beat! This game is all about the dream of becoming a real music hero. Enjoy an excellent rhythm based game and escape the stress of the day in Piano Dance Beat!
Flowkey teaches you to play great songs without having to practice reading sheet music for years. The app shows you exactly how to play each note and checks if you play along correctly.
PIANO METHODS AND TECHNIQUE
You can also learn all the piano basics by completing interactive courses that track your progress. Pianu Why we love Pianu: Pianu is a fully interactive music-learning website, bringing piano lessons into the 21st century. The ultimate goal is to combine the fun of Guitar Hero with a real musical instrument, and create piano lessons that feel like a game. Pianu continues to add new popular hits, classical favourites, movie and video game themes, and song requests from our members.
Help Musicians UK is the leading UK charity for professional musicians of all genres, from starting out through to retirement. The team supports musicians at times of crisis, and indeed at times of opportunity. Pianoscales Why we love Pianoscales: The website presents information about piano scales in a clear way, with an emphasis of the most important aspects of learning. The site is perfect for beginners who are not fully familiar with the concept of piano scales and those who have played for a while and are searching for lesser known scales.
Dodeka Why we love Dodeka: Because Dodeka is the complete opposite! With its simple music notation and its innovative keyboard - an insane linear layout with no more black keys, Dodeka helps you play the piano and your first songs in minutes. Dodeka gives learners exactly what they need, that is to say, the right tools to quickly play music and enjoy themselves without having to spend months on theory. Key Notes Why we love Key Notes: Key-notes is ideal for adult piano learners and offers courses tailored to the needs of adult students.
Alpha waves are enhanced in the Zen practice of zazen; theta waves are enhanced in shamanistic trance. In a mundane state of consciousness, the mind becomes habituated to a repeated auditory stimulus: The mind tunes the stimulus out as not being important. The mind of a Zen master in zazen does not tune the stimulus out and his EEG response remains with every repetition the same as it was the very first time.
The mind of Zen master in zazen is tuned to the moment in a receptive state. His mind is not wandering in memory of the past or meditation on possibilities of an unknown future; it is rooted in an ever renewing present, remaining physically aware of all stimuli. The "attention" is narrowed or selective in time, but diffused over all sensory awareness. The kind of attention that you want to cultivate as a pianist is not unlike that of Zen master. The difference is that the object of attention is selective, and involves the piano keyboard, auditory awareness, and both hands as a unit together with finger substructures and physical state.
That sounds like a lot to keep track of; it is. But, the human mind can do some pretty remarkable things. Have you ever been "day dreaming" when someone who recognized the state by observing physical symptoms said "pay attention"? The fact is that you were paying attention, in way that didn't suit the psychological needs of someone else.
The translation of such a demand is to pay at least simulated attention to a person, the words spoken and the vocal inflections of intimidation and implied threat. Obviously this is not a useful or productive kind of attention. In the terms that I've use above, try to describe the attentive state of day dreaming allowing for all the variations that might be present.
For anyone who drives an automobile properly, there arises a state of attention that is quite different from the mundane state of attention, which is mostly just distracted. In driving, distraction can be lethal. The knowledge of that can induce the driver to adopt a diffused but still focused attention on the road ahead, and vehicles behind and on the side as well as potential movement of vehicles entering and leaving the stream of traffic, not to mention road feel, feedback from the driven vehicle and host of other aspects of surroundings, and all pretty much simultaneously.
Here is a mundane example of a diffuse and yet focused attention or awareness that is very much unlike the requirement in the admonition or command "pay attention", and yet very much like the sort of attention appropriate to piano practice.
The following is a continuation and expansion of the attention concept into the notion of thinking. Thinking and Hemispheric Specialization: What is normally considered thinking, as opposed to the noise of internal rumination, is analytic problem solving.
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The problem is well posed and there presumably exists at least one given method of solution. This thinking is primarily logical and deductive. No all problems are amenable to, nor solved by deductive reasoning alone. Some inductive reasoning is always necessary since knowledge and information regarding the problem at hand is never complete in real life even though it may be in a textbook problem.
In most righthanded people, the analytic, linear, deductive, form of thinking seems to be located in the left hemisphere of the brain which would then contain Broca's area which functions as a formulator of linear language and Wernicke's area which functions as a decoder of spoken language.
The right hemisphere which is connected to the left hemisphere by a thick neuronal "cable" called the corpus collosum, seems to operate on possibly different principles of organization and has functions that include: There is an interesting and probably important difference, statistically, in the hemispheric distribution of activity that has been found between those who have been trained in music and those who have not.
In people not trained in music, musical activity is generally restricted to the right hemisphere, while in those who have been trained in music, musical activity is distributed over both hemispheres. To what extent and how are the two hemispheric activities correlated through the corpus collosum?
That is just a question, to which I have have no answer. The answer to this compound question must be rather complicated. It seems unlikely that the two activities are uncorrelated. I suspect strongly that one would find in creative mathematicians, that mathematics is then also bihemispheric in nature, and that people like Ramanujan might even have a slight right hemispheric dominance in creative mathematical activity.
Acts of invention appear to involve critical or analytic thinking as an act of selection against arising intuitive forms. It is not completely silly to expect that the manufacturing by the brain in the the right hemisphere may have a a certain amount of randomization in it just as there is randomization in the body's production of immune system antibodies.
The right hemisphere is often said to be the seat of the transcendental leaps that are completely necessary for the creation of the mechanisms that others use as deductive systems; I think there is probably some truth to this, but also think that this right hemisphere with a language of forms cannot function alone in a creative activity, but requires the left hemisphere to give expression to form, and that this is the "explanation" for music in musicians being a bilateral activity: There is necessarily an analytic component of music to a musician or a musically cognizant person.
That the human brain or even the cerebral cortex is not just one ganglion but has areas of specialty goes, of course, further than lateralization as the existence Broca's area and Wernicke's areas indicate.
A high degree of specialization can probably also be found in any mammal. Visual patterns are supposedly formed in occipital lobes which are directly connected to the optic nerves, in a crossed and complicated way. Evolutionarily, the occipital lobes are not new structures, and it is usually assumed that they play no important bidirectional role in the activities of the cerebral cortex.
Neurologically, how is one to conceptualize the phenomenon of internal visualization? Close your eyes and conjure up the image of a loved one. Is this purely or mostly a right hemispheric activity? Does it also involve activity in the occipital lobes?
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Again, I don't know the answer to this question; what I do know suggests the answer to the second queation to be no. But perhaps someone more neurologically knowledgeable could cite appropriate research that gives an answer.
It would be interesting to know, but the answer is not necessary for the following. It is a common experience that people can close there eyes as just an aid to minimize interference and conjure internal images. Graphical artists use this ability and with them it would probably be found by virtue of practice and stretching of the ability and reinforcement to be more detailed and precise that in others. Is graphical art also a bihemispheric activity for graphical artists?
Thinking in pictures and thinking in abstract forms is still thinking, though it does not follow the patterns of linear deductive analysis of the left hemisphere, and the type of thinking that allows creators to make the leap of arriving mentally where, perhaps no one has been before. Things are seen to fall into place by form, not by logic, and understood to be "true" or in just proportion; the problem remains of convincing one's self and others of that truth by expressing its necessity.
Composers speak of solving compositional problems, performers of performance problems. Such problems are very difficult to explain to someone who has not experienced them just as a problem of mathematics or the aesthetics of mathematics is difficult to explain to someone not experienced in mathematics.
Though the problem is difficult to explain in arts and sciences, the expression of the solution is available to anyone who sees, hears or reads the appropriate language. How difficult it would be let someone experience the beauty of a poem by Goethe when they don't know German, of Lermentov when they don't know Russian.
It is actually only through the solution that one can infer and thereby understand just what the original problem was, and this is an indecisive method of getting at the problem at best.
So, the problem as seen by the solver is not necessarily the problem as later defined and explicated by history and folklore. A right hemispheric process must be read by the left hemisphere in order to communicate the discovery and it must be done in an analytic and linear way. Translating between these two modes of thought is almost never easy. How often does one "have a thought" and then have difficulty in "putting it into words"? Understanding the truth or "justness" of a proposition or solution and providing the unassailable proof of it are two vastly different things.
The very providing of the proof is yet another act of creation and requires the form sense of the right hemisphere as well as the syntax of expression. Similarly, the left hemisphere must be read by the right hemisphere else the right has no coordinated direction in its own brand of thinking.
Whether or not this hemispheric division of labor happens to be a strictly true picture of neurophysiological reality is practically irrelevant. The exact truth would leave one engulfed in its details and leave precious little power left for using the metaphor.
What, of all our so called knowledge is not metaphor and model? We call it knowledge because it is useful to our purposes. The purpose may be to create more metaphor. The purpose may be to create art, build a bridge, increase our pleasure, communicate some useful thing to another human being, receive a useful thing, or send a man to the moon.
There is always some form of utility and purpose to knowledge. The metaphors I speak of here have been useful to me personally and I see that they may be useful to someone else. The verbs "to know" and "to say" in English are remarkably sloppy and imprecise given its overly large vocabulary.
Many other languages make fine distinctions as to the origin or state of knowledge that is purported to be known or communicated. Romance languages make the distinction between knowledge of fact and knowledge that is acquaintance; almost similarly in German "wissen" and "kennen". Such distinctions made in Cherokee are far more subtle and demanding, so much so that it has been said that it is almost impossible to lie in Cherokee; the very structure of the language demands specificity.
Perhaps making Cherokee the official language of the US Congress or government in general wouldn't be a bad idea. As a general rule, any real life situation there is necessarily an interaction of form or synthetic thinking and analytic thinking. Regarding music, for a musician, music is a definite part of real life; possibly, that has bearing on the bihemispheric activity involving music that appears in musicians; and with fair probability, similarly regarding creative theoretical scientists and creative artists in general.
Scientists are much like artists, their constraints are, however, more severe. A musician whether composer or performer has problems to solve: These choices are not arbitrary and follow a kind of nonlinear logic that is perceived by the artist through an understanding of form that is anything but deductive.
It is more like solving a knotty puzzle: By examining the logic of a composition, I've seen errors of pitch in scholarly editions of Bach that have been in print for over a hundred years. The error is an error simply because the composition taken as a whole declares it to be so.
Art, particularly music, is about as arbitrary as mathematics. A Note on Deductive versus Inductive logic: Deductive logic, by definition, reasons from the general to the particular. Guessing that a particular must follow from a general axiomatic system is a matter of logical art.
When the particular is proved as a theorem, the matter is in essence dead, excepting other creative proofs of the same particular. One might claim that the particular is already contained in the general, in principle, and so in one sense deductive logic is a dead thing. This is true but for some mitigation: Proof is act of creation: Generalities given as axiomatic systems, of "sufficient complexity" are incomplete, which is to say, given the axioms and accepted methods of deduction, there will be "true" propositions that cannot be proved.
When propositions can be proved and can then be called theorems, a sequence of logical steps getting to the theorem must be invented; I say invented, and not discovered because the sequence is never unique. A Note on Making Hemispheric Connections: How the hemispheres are bilaterally involved in a specific activities or task seems to be a matter of training as well as a probable genetic component, and in general, since any acculturation being also a training, be also a matter of culture.
Jaynes, in his "The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind", argues that modern consciousness actually arises from just such a connection being made and then transmitted as a matter of culture. Most "methods" of piano training take a very physical view, consistent with the notion that playing the piano is some simple motor task that can be drilled into the nervous system by mere repetition and that some correct ritual form must be followed concerning the wrist position or attitude, finger curl, and other purely physical matters.
If one were simply to look at the videotaped performances by Rubenstein, Horowitz, Gould, etc. The classic response from many teachers of piano when confronted with this contradiction is: The rest is inconsequential, and you, whoever you may be cannot be one of these legends, so you must conform to the rules which govern mere mortals.
Such an answer is neither satisfying nor constructive, and still leaves the essential questions unanswered. Musicianship is neurologically speaking a bihemispherical activity as is any creative process. Composingperforming and listening are all creative processes.
Musicianship involves an understanding of all three. The "problem" of musicianship is then to figure out how to make what must be a bihemispheric process into a coordinated bihemispheric process, which is to say to make coordinated connections between the hemispheres of the brain. This problem also seems to be the problem of "being a mathematician". In both cases, the standard education takes the easy and fruitless road of addressing the analytic left hemisphere only.
Suppose one wanted to make some guesses as to what, neurologically, is involved in a piano technique. If some idea is had of that, then there is some hope that something sensible might actually be said concerning acquisition of the skill. At very least, some ruleouts may be possible. There are a few things that are clear from history and experience without much learned searching: The real question is what kind of work?
What are the signs or criteria for good, which is say, effective, practice? I don't seriously think that I know all that will be physically good for any given student of piano, since that depends on too many factors.Proper Finger Placement for Piano
I don't and can't give a method, in the sense of a recipe; I don't believe that such a recipe exists. Putting experience, neurology, psychology and little logic together does seem to give a clue as to what is involved and what criteria a dedicated student might consider as a metamethod or system of criteria for determining what to do and how to do it, or perhaps more simply put, how to recognize and solve the technical problems that arise during the process of learning.
The metamethod, in distinction from most piano methods, will focus not on physical processes, but on mental processes which are much harder to communicate: Clear examples cannot be given for things mental. Nevertheless, I will try using analogy and metaphor, and see what comes of it.
First let's collect some facts of life by history and observation. An initiate not only could not start by playing Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata or Liszt's B minor Sonata, but would probably not be able to make any sense of it anyhow.
It takes experience and practice in listening to hear all the voices of a four voiced fugue; it is not something humans are born with. If you can't hear them, can you play them properly? Here, I confess a bias in taste: Playing music is all about expressing or projecting the form inherent in the score.
However, a good sightreader, can play any score within technical limitations. I've known musicians who are playing wonderfully on stage, but whose mind is also considering what to get for food after the concert, weighing whether pizza would be a good idea. I somehow doubt that this was the case with Gould, who was so completely engrossed in what he was doing that he was even oblivious to the fact that he was conducting and singing at the same time. By direct observation, Rubenstein was either absorbed in what he was doing or paying attention to the audience as much as they were paying attention to him.
Each has a unique mental pattern; but, the interesting point is that neither full consciousness of music nor of physical execution is apparently necessary. I am using inferential logic here based on observations, and my assertions must looked at circumspectly and questioningly. It is normal for people to walk, talk and think at the same time; however, note the impairment of thinking and even talking if the walking is done on a crowded street where one has constantly to avoid collisions.
The act of walking has acquired a complication that some people adjust to by exposure and practice. Activities and thoughts can superpose, but there is an individual and circumstantial limit to the degree to which such superposition is successful. To the present point: Position sense in the hand is redundantly give.
There are sensors in the joints and there are also sensors Golgi tendon organs in the tendons of the hands. The Golgi organs as well as the joint sensors fire or respond to changes, which is to say movement. With stillness, regardless of conformation, the sensors will stop firing and stop feeding back information on position to cognitive faculties. This situation is not unique to the hand.
This information of position is constantly being fed back to the brain or spinal cord during motion, and yet, we use very much our visual cues to accomplish proprioception. A pianist does things that are of such complexity and rapidity, that normal ocular visual cues are not enough. What must be refined in practice in a pianist is the brains decoding of the sensory cues as well as an internal visualization that can operate with greater rapidity and complexity that a vision that uses the bulky ocular vision.
This is metaphorically using the speed of a CPU of a computer rather than processing in some slower peripheral device. Ocular vision is necessarily stuck in the present moment while an internal vision is not only not stuck in the present moment, it is not even stuck in a single moment, but can be spread over an anticipated time.
Entire passages, pages or even movements and pieces can be grasped and anticipated with internal vision. The trained ability to do this is clearly also a form of memorization. Does the brain actually superpose cognitive tasks or activities?
From the above examples, the answer is yes. Are tasks categorized so that different categories can be superposed but, two tasks in the same category cannot? Or, is this just harder and another task to master: This is a special a task as sightreading or transposing while sightreading.
Even people who are genuinely bilingual or multilingual have difficulty doing this unless they have trained themselves to do it, so as to act as translators in informal situations where the speaker whose words are being translated is oblivious to the ongoing translation, e.
Alternatively, does the mind act line a computer's CPU in a time sharing system, which actually only does performs one task at a time but which switches between tasks do a little bit of all required tasks in such a scheduled way so it appears that all tasks are being served simultaneously? Nature is filled, and human minds are filled with illusions of perception. Computer software continues the trend.
The brain has a division of labor that goes beyond division by hemispheres, so that many primitive activities that are highly localized can be coordinated to form complex activities that are also servomechanistic.
Some long term memories are actually encoded at the molecular level; you can't much more local. Superposition of neurological activities is not the same thing as superposition of cognitive activities, and yet there is also indication of of just such superposition. From the localization of neurological activities one can infer their superposition in time. From experience and observation one can infer similar superposition of cognitive activities. What seems to be the case in cognitive functions is that while the can be superposed, there is a necessary prioritization that goes with that superposition, which is to say they are also coordinated.
One and only one cognitive activity is dominant at any given time. One and only one cognitive state is dominant at any given time. Here the concept of time sharing comes into play. The important thing for a pianist is develop a wide repetoir of cognitive activities and states which involve bihemispheric connections and activities.
If every act of a pianist were indeed sequentially volitional, in a simple sense, piano playing would be quite impossible: That each note is a separate and independent volition is an untenable hypothesis.
I have not even taken into account the complexity required in the performance of complex counterpoint. There are two ways to alter this hypothesis: Reality always involves limitations, which is why thoughts of magic, however unrealistic, are often emotionally preferred, and unfortunately believed. No matter how useful volitional or reflex acts are parsed neurologically, the resulting model is overwhelmingly complicated and it is obvious that the act is not expressed in an act that controls the maze of complication in detail.
There is instead a neurological cascade effect where something triggers a chain reaction or cascade of neurological firing that ends in the desired complex effect. The intermediaries of the cascade are established through practice and training. But, there must be that initial neurological event that is the trigger. Reflex is relatively speaking, easier to understand than a volitional act, which may or may not have a physically discernible result: There are physical and mental reflexes that have as trigger some fairly simple physical or mental trigger.
Some reflexes are essential hardwiring of the nervous system and others are learned. Many mental and physical activities have at the end of their neurological cascade, reflexes, which when physical are mostly monosynaptic therefore fast reflexes that involve the spinal cord directly and not the brain. What is missing in this picture is the trigger for a complex task. My assertion on this is that mind uses a simple, but carefully nurtured metaphor with which it can deal effectively and usefully, often that metaphor is an internal image.
Some voice teachers teach their students to visual their voice. Students of meditation are often taught to center or balance themselves.
Concepts of center, balance, focus and rootedness are involved in the proper teaching of martial arts. Yoga students visualize the power of the kundalini shakti rising to excite the chakras.
Mandalas and their cognates exist as explicitly geometric metaphors used in meditative forms. Images and sound appear in all human cultures where a change of consciousness or of mental state is involved. I have difficulty seeing this over and again and thinking that it is an accident. Images, our most powerful metaphors of knowledge, are so powerful that we internalize them as the trigger metaphors for complex thought and physical action.
These are the internal things that we can deal with, and do deal with, even in such seemingly simple acts as picking up a fork or a glass. The idea of explicitly using internal visualization in the practice of acquiring piano technique should, at this point, seem completely obvious, as if I have said nothing new or interesting, but merely excited an old memory.
There is, however, a little more to the story that just saying visualize internally. The existence, in music, of vertical events in the senses of confluent contrapuntal lines or chords suggests strongly that the notion of "instantaneous" pattern plays an important part in playing, therefore in technique and therefore in the practice that is to produce the technique.
Patterns of music are multidimensional and not merely vertical but involve dynamics, relative relationships to precedent and antecedent patterns, etc. It appears that for simple volitional body part movments, there is discernable potential rise in EEG as long as a half second before any actual movement. Training the prepotential and facilitating neuronal pathways: There are plateaus in learning in general and there are plateaus is learning to be a pianist.
If the plateau turns into a block, there is some problem to solve which will involve defining or understanding what the problem is and then finding a way through proper vivualization, and practice of mental and physical preparation to solve it. Like most knowledge, pianism and musicianship is quasihierarchical, and builds expands from some fundamental foundation, sometimes altering extending and replacing the foundation itself.
There is, of course, no secret to the existence of the seemingly impossible: The secret is a general understanding of a metamethod by which the seemingly impossible is achieved; and, this is the subject at hand which I am trying to make as scientifically reasonable as I can. There is a long way to go for a "proof". The question and answer that I'm trying to get at here is just how this training and honing can be accomplished Physical Preparation: Occurs after the mental preparation To try to give bones to the theory, I'll give a series of exercises, starting with the simplest, that can be applied with suitable changes to working at any musical material.
Close your eyes and let the hands relax as much as possible. The fingers are just barely touching their keys. Visual a focused attention on each finger starting at one side and working slowly, finger by finger to the other side. All the while, move absolutely nothing; only your point of attention will move. If you keep this up, you should become of aware of two things, 1 As you focus your attention on one finger, your mental image of the others will fade.
If 1 does not happen, two things are possible, a you have already learned how to expand and superpose attention states and are probably a pretty good pianist already, or b you are fooling yourself into thinking that your attention and visual imaging is the best you can do.
With such completely internal subtleties it is very easy not to see what you don't see. Try harder to see the holes, lapses, droupouts or fadeouts of you internal imaging. If 2 does not happen, you are cheating in absolute stillness. If you move fingers or hand, even ever so slightly, you will be exciting the proprioception sensors of both joints and tendons that will send signals to the brain about where fingers and hand are in space.
If you remain absolutely still, these sensors will loose excitation and not feed back the proprioceptive information; that's just neurological reality. Perform this exercise with various hand positions in scale and passage segments and chords.
Although, physically, you are doing nothing observable, which is the point, you are developing a mental foundation, and becoming aware by experience of proprties of mind and body.
Discounting problems 1 and 2this should have been relatively easy. The ease is partially associated with the cultural ease of point centered attention and left hemispheric dominance. The next exercise complicates the first, by adding an action.