Keywords adolescents, dating violence, child-to-parent violence, exposure to violence, intimate Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. International Journal of Behavioral Development , 36, Validation of the Spanish version of the conflict in adolescent dating. Mar 27, Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the Keywords: college dating violence, early socialization, family social The risk of partner violence among low-income Hispanic subgroups. Items 1 - 9 International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology Despite the growing interest in the study of dating violence, relatively few psychometrically . and verbal emotional abuse) with 25 items; and DVQ (CUVINO), with Spanish.
The term "violence" refers to maltreatment of a partner, including physical assault, injury as a result of assault by a partner, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion. The questionnaires, although completed by one person, include data on the behavior of both partners as reported by the student who completed questionnaire. The study questionnaire includes two scales, the Conflict Tactics Scales or CTS Straus, to obtain data on violence between the respondent and his or her partner, and the Personal And Relationships Profile PRP to obtain data on 25 risk factors for partner violence and a scale to measure "socially desirable" response bias Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, and Sugarman, Using the CTS, the respondents were queried about personal and social relationships.
This included emotional attachments to partners, parents, and family. They were then asked about conflicts with and opinions of their partner. In addition, they were asked whether or not they attended religious services. Respondents were also queried about conflict with, and anger toward, their partners. Questions included whether the respondent could control his or her anger, how they coped with it, and if they assigned blame for becoming angry to their partner.
Further questions focused on communication, including disagreements about relationships with others and with partners. Respondents were further asked if they experienced jealousy and exhibited controlling behavior toward their partner. They were then asked about their personal beliefs and attitudes toward others, including how they interact with people.
Suicidal thoughts or statements were also included in the questions. Respondents were queried about their experiences with fear of past events and whether those experiences still affected their life.
Another focus of the CTS was violence and criminal behavior. Respondents were asked about whether they witnessed violence between others, including those within their own families. Another focus of the CTS was sexual abuse.
Respondents were queried about sexual abuse experienced in their childhood as well as adulthood, whether that abuse was committed by a family member or within an adult relationship.
I mean I felt like she was criticizing my choice from the very beginning, like she knew he was trash and she didn't even say anything, and now that I am crying, now that I am sad, now that I feel like my life was destroyed she's telling me it was trash… So, um I kinda shied away from telling my family the next time. When family involvement was harmful, it appeared to serve as a significant barrier to help-seeking. However, when the family involvement was helpful, it set the stage for participants being more open to help and reaching out to services.
Discussion The results from this study offer insight into the experiences of late adolescent Hispanic females with DV and help-seeking behavior. Despite disparities in the occurrence and consequences of DV among Hispanic female adolescents, a minimal amount of attention has been paid to evidence based interventions addressing the unique experiences of this group.
This is fundamental in informing culturally tailored interventions directed to this community. They also felt that the isolation that often resulted from DV and experiences of immigration interacted with missed opportunities for bystanders, police, and service providers to connect them to the services they needed.
Nevertheless, the participants from his study were able to access both informal and formal help, and were pleased with the formal services they received.
However, in order for victims to access this help they needed to experience pivotal experiences e. Family members played an important role in their experiences with DV and ability to access services. As reported by researchers who have worked with females during this developmental period, female adolescent victims of DV experienced a myriad of types of abuse e.
Yet, unique to this study was the perception that Hispanic females in their late adolescence have a higher risk for DV. They believed that conflict in Hispanic couples was more normative than in non-Hispanic relationships and that gender roles around masculinity e. The perception that DV is more normative in Hispanic relationships, in of itself, can potentially contribute to their risk for victimization.
The Spanish-speaking participants of this study perceived their experiences as an immigrant to be a risk factor and, for some, a consequence of DV. This contradicts quantitative research suggesting tat individuals that are less acculturated and immigrants are protected against DV Gonzalez-Guarda et al.
It may be that the participants of this study did not have the protective features associated with being an immigrant and lower levels of acculturation that were inherent in the other samples of adolescents included in previous research. Family values and support may therefore help explain the risk trajectories of the Hispanic adolescent females in this study. The protective features associated with strong family values and support may have been interrupted by the DV, especially for those who immigrated as a result of the DV and were therefore also physically separated from their families.
Also, some participants in this study reported harmful involvement from family members, which contributed to their negative DV experiences and ability to access help. It may be that family related variables work differently for late adolescent Hispanic females depending on the family's ability to address DV, especially when severe forms of DV are present. Future DV research should more closely examine the effects of immigration, acculturation and cultural values associated with families to better discern mechanisms in which families can support or further harm victims of DV.
The participants of this study were more likely to seek out informal sources of help than formal sources. This similar to what others have reported in the literature Ocampo et al.
Yet unlike what was reported in the recent study reported by Sabina and Ho, the participants in this study appeared to seek more informal help from families than friends. This may be because the participants of this study were involved with very serious types of DV and therefore more likely to seek services from people who would be less likely to judge them.
Indeed, participants of this study discussed how it was helpful when their families counseled them without judgement. It is possible that informal help-seeking behaviors vary according to the severity of abuse; this should be examined further through research.
Although the participants of this study were al seeking help through formal sources, they shared experiences when they could have accessed these services earlier. In fact, pivotal experiences were involved in them accessing help. These pivotal experiences were comprised of breaking points such as an incident involving their children or criminal justice interventions e.
The theme related to missed opportunities and pivotal moments resonates with research with adult women experiencing intimate partner violence more broadly. Although the participants of this study were in the important developmental period of late adolescence, many experienced severe forms of DV that are observed with victims of intimate partner violence in later adult-hood and many had children with previous partners Therefore it is important to consider experiences that typically occur in later developmental periods e.
There are several factors that need to be considered when transferring the findings from this study to Hispanic females in their late adolescence. First, it is important to note that the participants from this study were all accessing services at a social service agency for their DV. The DV and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females victims of DV who are not accessing services are likely quite different.
Second, the participants of this study reported very severe types of abuse e. The severity of abuse is likely tied to their experiences with DV and help-seeking. Third, the social definition of DV was used as eligibility criteria for this study, which entails violence perpetrated by a current or previous boyfriend i. This social definition of DV was not entirely aligned with the legal definition of DV of the state that influences services available to victims.
As such, while all participants met the social definition participants went in and out of meeting the legal definition defined as victims do not live with the perpetrator i.
Therefore, the experiences of the participants from this study may not be applicable to the experiences of individuals seeking services under legal definitions determined by state laws. Despite this study's limitations, the findings from this study have important implications for screening and intervening for DV among Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Programs and services targeting this population should consider the cultural norms around relationships and gender for Hispanic adolescents.
Normative expectations around conflict and male control in intimate relationships may contribute to risk for DV and help-seeking behaviors and should therefore be considered when screening and addressing DV among Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Social service, criminal justice, and healthcare providers appear to play pivotal roles in helping en sure that victims are connected to services. Training appears to be needed for these service providers to help increase the quality of screening and referrals made to DV services.
However, training should not only be directed to formal sources of help. As identified in this study, informal sources such as bystanders and families play a very important role. Therefore, programs that help informal sources, especially families, provide the appropriate support for victims of DV should be developed and evaluated.
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies supporting this research. Footnotes Declaration of Interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the article. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.
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