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King Friedrich to Voltaire at Berlin, Friedrich to Voltaire again, Fractions of Events and Indications, from Voltaire himself, in this Time; more or less illuminative when reduced to Order, Voltaire's Answer from Leipzig, a few days after Fredersdorf sends Instructions; the "CEuvre de Po6sie" is got; but- Voltaire, in spite of his efforts, does get away June 20th-July 7th Friedrich is visible, in Holland, to the naked Eye, for some Minutes June 23d, Concerning Menzel and Weingarten, p.
There has been a Counter-Treaty going on at Versailles, in the Interim; which hereupon starts out, and tumbles the wholly astonished European Diplomacies heels-over-head, Same to-same Confidential, this one The Marcth into Saxony, in Three Columns, Friedrich to Wilhelmina at Baireuthp. Prince of Prussia to Valori, Instruction Secrete Pour le Conte de finc, Thanks to Friedrich Wilhelm and himself, there is no Army, nor ever was any, in such continual preparation.
Military people say, "Some Countries take six months, some twelve, to get in motion for war: The French, as was intimated, are in great vigour, this Year; thoroughly provoked; and especially since Friedrich sent his Rothenburg among them, have been doing their very utmost. Their main effort is in the Netherlands, at present;-and indeed, as happened, continues all through this TWar to be. They by no means intend, or ever did, to neglect Teutschland; yet it turns out, they have pretty much done with their fighting there.
And next Year, driven or led by accidents of various kinds, they quit it altogether; and turning their whole strength upon the Netherlands and Italy, chiefly on the Netherlands, leave Friedrich, much to his astonishment, with the German War hanging wholly round his neck, and take no charge of it farther!
In which, to Friedrich's Biographers, there is this inestimable benefit, if far the reverse to Friedrich's self: That we shall soon have done with the French, then; with them and with so much else; and may, in time coming, for most part, leave their huge VOL. Sorcerer's Sabbath of a European War to dance itself out, well in the distance, not encumbering us farther, like a circumambient Bedlam, as it has hitherto done.
Let us give, in a glance or two, some notion of the course things took, and what moment it was when Friedrich struck in; —whom alone, or almost alone, we hope to follow thenceforth; "Dismal Swamp" so gracious was Heaven to us lying now mostly to rearward, little as we hoped it! It was mere accident, a series of bad accidents, that led King Louis and his Ministers into gradually forsaking Friedrich. They were the farthest in the world from intending such a thing.
Contrariwise, what brain-beating, diplomatic spider-weaving, practical contriving, now and afterwards, for that object; especially now Rothenburg, Noailles, Belleisle, Cardinal lencin, have been busy; not less the mistress Chateauroux, who admires Friedrich, being indeed a high-minded unfortunate female, as they say; and has thrown out Amelot, not for stammering alone.
They are able, almost high people, this new Chateauroux Ministry, compared with some; and already show results. Nay, what is most important of all, France has unconsciously, or by mere help of Noailles and luck got a real General t6 her Armies: Comte de Saxe, now Marechal de Saxe; who will shine very splendent in these Netherland operations;-countershone by mere Wades, D'Ahrembergs, Cumberlands; —in this and the Four following Years.
Noailles had always recognized Comte de Saxe; had long striven for him, in Official quarters; and here gets the light of him unveiled at last, and set on a high place: This was the Year, thiswhen Louis XV. So that the Dutch Barrier, if anybody now cared for it, did go all flat; and the Balance of Power gets kicked out of its sacred pivot: Terrible to think of;-had not there, from the opposite quarter, risen a surprising counterpoise; had not there been a Prince Karl, with his 70, pressing victoriously over the Rhine; which stayed the French in these sacrilegious procedures.
Prince Karl gets across the Rhine 20th June-2d July Prince Karl, some weeks ago, at Heilbronn, joined his Rhine Army, which had gathered thither from the Austrian side, through Baiern, and from the Hither - Austrian or Swabian Winter-quarters; with full intent to be across the Rhine, and home upon Elsass and the Compensation Countries this Summer, under what difficulties soever.
Karl, or as some-whisper, old Marshal Traun, who is nominally second in command, do make a glorious campaign of it, this Year; —and lift the Cause of Liberty, at one time, to the highest pitch it ever reached. Here, in brief terms, is Prince Karl's Operation on the Rhine, much admired by military men: Some thirty and odd miles north of Mannheim, the Rhine, before turning westward at Mainz, makes one other of its many Islands of which there are hundreds since the leap at Schaffhausen: Coigny and the French, some 40, aro guarding the River hereabouts, with lines, with batteries, cordons, the best they can; Seckendorf, with 20, more ' Imperial' Old-Bavarian Troops, revivified, recruited by French payis in his garrison of Philipsburg, ready to help when needed: The active General Barenklau, active Brigadier Daun under him, pushes rapidly across into Kuhkopf; rapidly throws up entrenchments, ramparts, mounts cannon, digs himself in,-greatly to Coigny's astonishment; whose people hereabouts, and in all their lines and posts, are busy shooting feu-de-joie for those immortal Dutch victories, at the moment, and never dreaming of such a thing.
Fresh force floods in, Prince Karl himself arrives next day, in support of Barenklau; Coigny head-quarters at Speyer, forty miles south need not attempt dislodging him; but must stand upon his guard, and prepare for worse. Which he does with diligence; shifting northward into those Stockstadt-Mainz parts; calling Seckendorf across the River, and otherwise doing his best,-for about ten days more, when worse, and almost worst, did verily befal him.
Colonel Mentzel" copperfaced Colonel, originally Playactor, " Spy in Persia," and I know not what "had been at the seizure of Kuhkopf; a prominent man. Whom, on the fifth day after ' June 25th'Prince Karl overwhelmed with joy, by handing him a Patent of Generalcy: The Prince himself is to be there, Highness of Hessen-Darmstadt, and who not; all are impatient to drink your health!
Eminent swill of drinking, with the loud coarse talk supposable, on the part of Mentzel and consorts did go on, in this manner, all afternoon: Trenck also, readers will be glad to understand, ends in jail and bedlam by and by.
Nevertheless he set about two other Bridges in the neighbourhood, nearer Mainz few miles below that City ; kept manceuvering his Force, in huge half-moon, round that quarter, and mysteriously up and down; alarming Coigny wholly into the Mainz region. For the space of ten days; and then, stealing off to Schr6ck, a little Rhine Village above Philipsburg, many miles away from Coigny and his vigilances, he"Night of 30th June —st July, Suddenly shot Pandour Trenck, followed by Nadasti and 6, across at Schrbck; who scattered Seckendorf's poor outposts thereabouts to the winds;' built a bridge before morning, and next day another.
And, in fact, blazing to and fro in that excited rather than luminous condition, could not do anything; except retire into the strong posts of the background; and send express on express, swifter than the wind if you can, to a victorious King overturning the Dutch Barrier: What a General, this Prince Karl! For it had sent the Cause of Liberty bounding up again to the top of things, this of crossing the Rhine, in such fashion. And in effect, the Cause of Liberty, and Prince Karl himself, had risen hereby to their acme or culminating point in the WorldHistory; not to continue long at such height, little as they dreamt of that, among their tar-burnings.
The feat itself,contrived by Nadasti, people say, and executed what was the real difficulty by Traun;-brought Prince Karl very great renown, this Year; and is praised by Friedrich himself, now and afterwards, as masterly, as Julius Caesar's method, and the proper way of crossing rivers when executable in face of an enemy.
And indeed Prince Karl, owing to Traun or not, is highly respectable in the way of Generalship at present; and did in these Five Months, from June onward, really considerable things. At his very acme of-Life, as well as of Generalship; which, alas, soon changed, poor man; never to culminate again. London, ; one of the most' distracted Blotches ever published under the name of Book;-awakening thoughts of a public dimness very considerable indeed, to which this could offer itself as lamp!
No man can be supremely happy long; and this General's strategic felicity. The Cause of Liberty, too, now at the top of its orbit, was-But let us stick by our Excerpting: But could not, in the least, save it; the reverse rather. August 4th, he got to Metz, Belleisle's strong Town, about miles from the actual scene; his detached reinforcements, say 50, men or so, hanging out ahead like flame-clouds, but uncertain how to act;-Noailles being always cunctatious, in time of crisis, and poor Louis himself nothing of a Cloud-Compeller;-and then, "Metz, August 8th, The Most Christian King fell ill; dangerously, dreadfully, just like to die.
Which entirely paralysed Noailles and Company, or reduced them to mere hysterics, and excitement of the unluminous kind. And filled France in general, Paris in particular, with terror, lamentation, prayers of forty hours; and such a paroxysm of hero-worship as was never seen for such an object before. Prince Karl is here actually in Elsass, master of the strong passes; elate in heart, he and his; France, again, as if fallen paralytic, into temporary distraction; offering for resistance nothing hitherto but that universal wailing of mankind, Hero-worship of a thrice-lamentable nature, and the Prayers of Forty-Hours!
Most Christian Majesty, now in extremis, centre of the basest hubbub that ever 6 Espagnac, ii. Noailles, Coigny and Company hang well back upon the Hill regions, and strong posts which are not yet menaced; or fly vaguely, more or less distractedly, hither and thither; not in the least like fighting Karl, much less like beating him.
Karl has Germany free at his back nay it is a German population round him here ; neither haversack nor cartridge-box like to fail: If old Marshal Wade, at the other end of the line, should chance to awaken and press home on Saxe, and his remnant of French, with right vigour?
In fact, there was not, that I can see, for centuries past, not even at the Siege of Lille in Marlborough's time, a more imminent peril for France. Friedrich decides to intervene. King Friedrich, on hearing of these Rhenish emergencies and of King Louis's heroic advance to the rescue, perceived that for himself too the moment was come; and hastened to inform heroic Louis, That though the terms of their Bargain were not yet completed, Sweden, Russia and other points being still in a pendent condition, he, Friedrich, —with an ee to success of their Joint Adventure, and to the indispensability of joint action, energy, and the top of one's speed now or never,-would, by the middle of this same August, be on the field withmen.
Over which, if your Most Christian Majesty be active, he will not get, except in a half or wholly ruined state. Follow him close; send the rest of your force to threaten Hanover; sit well on the skirts of Prince Karl. Him as he hurries homeward, ruined or half-ruined, him, or whatever Austrian will fight, I do my best to beat. We may have Bohemia, and a beaten Austria, this very Autumn: And truly it is a fine manful indifference by no means so common as it should be to all interests, to all considerations, but that of a Joint Enterprise one has engaged in.
And truly, furthermore, it was immediate salvation to the paralysed French Gentlemen, in that alarming, crisis; though they did not much recognise it afterwards as such; and indeed were conspicuously forgetful of all parts of it, when their own danger was over. Maria Theresa's feelings may be conceived; George II. Precisely in this supreme crisis, 7th AugustFriedrich's Minister, Graf von Dohna, at Vienna, has given notice of the Frankfurt Union, and solemn Engagement entered into: Prussian Majesty has not the least quarrel of his own with the Queen of Hungary, stands true, and will stand, by the Treaty of Berlin and Breslau;-only, with certain other German Princes, has done what all German Princes and peoples not Austrian are bound to do, on behalf of their down-trodden Kaiser, formed a Union of Frankfurt; and will, with armed hand if indispensable, endeavour to see right done in that matter.
This man is In Adelung, iv. Prince Karl's Operation is likely to be marred amazingly. If this swift King comparable to the old Serpent for devices were to burst forth from his Silesian strengths; tread sharply on the tail of Prince Karl's Operation, and bring back the formidably fanged head of it out of Alsace, five hundred miles all at once, —there would be a business!
We will now quit the Rhine Operations, which indeed are not now of moment; Friedrich being suddenly the key of events again. I add only, what readers are vaguely aware of, that King Louis did not die; that he lay at death's door for precisely one week 8thth Augustsymptoms mending on the 15th.
In the interim,-Grand -Almoner Fitz-J ames Uncle of our Conte di Spinelli insisting that a certain Cardinal, who had got the Sacraments in hand, should insist; and endless ministerial intrigue being busy,-moribund Louis had, when it came to the Sacramental point, been obliged to dismiss his Chateauroux.
Poor Chateauroux; an unfortunate female: That was the one issue of King Louis's death-sickness. Sublime sickness; during which all-Paris wept aloud, in terror and sorrow, like a child that has lost its mother and sees a mastiff coming; wept sublimely, and did the Prayers of Forty-Hours; and called King Louis Le Bien-aime The Wellbeloved: Nay reinstated even Chateauroux, some time after,-" the Devil being well again," and, as the Proverb says, quitting his monastic view.
Old Marshal Wade did not awaken, though bawled to by his Ligoniers and others, and much shaken about, poor old gentleman. Possibly he would have awakened, had they given him time. But time, in War especially, is the thing that is never given. Once Friedrich had struck in, the moment was gone by.
Of him also enough. IT was on Saturday, "early in the morning," 15th Augustthat Friedrich set out, attended by his two eldest Brothers, Prince of Prussia and Prince Henri, from Potsdam, towards this new Adventure, which proved so famous since.
Sudden, swift, to the world's astonishment;-actually on march here, in three Columns two through Saxony by various routes southeastward, one from Silesia through Glatz south-westwardto invade Bohemia: Through Saxony about 60, go: A Document which flurries the Dresden Officials beyond measure.
Their King is in Warsaw; their King, if here, could do little; and indeed has been inclining to Maria Theresa this long while. And Winterfeld insists on such despatch;-and not even the Duke of Weissenfels is in Town. Dresden Officials " send off five couriers and thirteen estafettes" to the poor old Duke;2 get him at last; and-The march is already taking effect; they may as well consent to it: In the uttermost flurry, they had set to fortifying Dresden; all hands driving palisades, picking, delving, making coupures trenches, or sunk barricades in the streets;fatally aware that it can avail nothing.
Is not this the Kaiser's Order? Prussians, to the amount of 60, are across our Frontiers, rapidly speeding on. An astonishment to all mankind; which gave rise to endless misconceptions of Friedrich; but which, supporting itself on proofs, on punctually excerpted foot-notes, is intrinsically a modest, quiet Piece; and, what is singular in Manifestoes, has nothing, or almost nothing, in it that is not, so far as it goes, a perfect statement of the fact.
No war with her Hungarian Majesty, or with any other, on our own score.
But her Hungarian Majesty, how has she treated the Romish Kaiser, her and our and the Reich's Sovereign Head, and to what pass reduced him; refusing him Peace on any terms, except those of self-annihilation; denying that he is a Kaiser at all;'-and enumerates the various Imperial injuries, with proof given, quiet foot-notes by way of proof; and concludes in these words: The question here is not of his Majesty's own interest at all' everything his Majesty required, or requires, is by the Treaty of Berlin solemnly his, if the Reich and its Laws endure: Perhaps the most surprising item of which is this latter, very prominent in 3 Given in Seyfarth, Beylage, i.
A monument of several things! Friedrich's suddenness is an essential part of what fighting talent he has: And as to the rumour, which rose afterwards and was denied, and could only be denied diplomatically to the ear, if even to the earThat Friedrich by Secret Article was'to have for himself the Three Bohemian Circles, Konigsgratz, Bunzlau, Leitmeritz, which lie between Schlesien and Sachsen,'4 -there is not a doubt but.
Friedrich had so bargained,'Very well, if we can get said Circles! Not a doubt of all this: One, on the south or left shore of the Elbe, coming in various branches under Friedrich himself; this alone will touch on Dresden, pass on the south side of Dresden; gather itself about Pirna in the Saxon Switzerland so-called, a notable locality ; thence over the Metal Mountains into B6hmen, by Tiplitz, by Lowositz, Leitmeritz, and the Highway called the Pascopol, famous in war.
The Second Column, under Leopold the Young Dessauer, goes on the other or north side of the Elbe, at a fair distance; marching through the Lausitz rendezvous or starting-point was Bautzen in the Lausitz straight south, to meet the King at Leitmeritz, where the grand Magazine is to be; and thence, still south, straight upon Prag, in conjunction with his Majesty or parallel to him.
This, say 20, 4 Ielden-Geschichte, i. In the home parts of Silesia, well eastward of Glatz, there is left another Force of 20;, which can go across the Austrian Border there, and hang upon the Hills, threatening OlmUitz and the Moravian Countries, should need be. And so, in its Three Columns, from west, from north, from east, the march, with a steady swiftness, proceeds. Important especially those Two Saxon Columns from west and north: Three months' provisions, endless artillery and provender, is on the Elbe; big boats, with immense Vorspann of trace-horses, dreadful swearing, too, as I have heardwill pass through the middle of Dresden: No, be assured of it, ye Dresdeners, all flurried, palisaded, barricaded; no hair of you shall be harmed.
Prussians, under strict discipline, molest no private person; pay their way; keep well aloof, to south and to north, of Dresden all but the necessary ammunition-escorts do ;-and require of the Official people nothing but what the Law of, the Reich authorises to " Imperial Auxiliaries" in such case. Certain it is, Freidrich did no mischief, paid for everything; anxious to keep well with Saxony; hoping always they might join him again, in such a Cause. My high projects on Elsass and Lorraine; Husband for Kaiser, Elsass for the Reich and him, Lorraine for myself and him; —gone probably to water!
What measures, against this nefarious Prussian outbreak, hateful to gods and men, are possible, she rapidly takes: And abates nothing of heart or hope;-praying withal, immensely, she and her People, according to the mode they have.
Sending for Prince Karl, we need not say, double-quick, as the very first thing. Scarcely above a District or two as the Jaszers and Kauers, in their over-cautious way making the least difficulty. Much enthusiasm and unanimity in all the others; here and there a Hungarian gentleman complaining scornfully that their troops, known as among the best fighters in Nature, are called irregular troops, -irregular, forsooth!
In one public consultation" District not important, not very spellable, though doubtless pronounceable by natives to it" a gentleman suggests that;'Winter is near; should not there be some slight provision of tents, of shelter in the frozen sleety Mountains, to our gallant fellows bound thither?
No talk of tents, of barracks or accommodation there; each, wrapt in his sheepskin, found it shelter sufficient. Nobility all making off, some to Vienna or the intermediate Towns lying thitherward, some to their Country-seats; all out of Prag. Willing mind on the part of the Common People; which the Government strains every 7iHelden-Geschichte, ii.
Here are fasts, processions, Prayers of Forty Hours; here, as in Vienna and elsewhere. In Vienna was a Three Days' solemn Fast: Vitus, —little likely to help, I should fear. General Harsch, with reinforcement of real soldiers, is despatched from Vienna; Harsch, one of our ablest soldiers since Khevenhiiller died, gets in still in time; and thus increases the Garrison of regulars to 4, with a vigorous Captain to guide it. Old Count Ogilvy, the same whom Saxe surprised two years ago in the moonlight, snatching ladders from the gallows,-Ogilvy is again Commandant; but this time, nominal mainly, and with better outlooks, Harsch being under him.
In relays, 3, of the Militia men dig and shovel night and day; repairing, perfecting the ramparts of the place. Then, as to prbvisions, endless corn is introduced, — farmers forced, the unwilling at the bayonet's point, to deliver-in their corn; much of it in sheaf, so that we have to thrash it in the marketplace, in the streets that are wide: With the great Church,-organs growling; and the bass and treble Miserere of the poor superstitious People rising, to St.
In fact, it is a general Dance of St. Vitus,-except that of the flails, and Militia men working at the ramparts,-mostly not leading anywhither. At Tetschen on the Saxon-Bohemian Frontier,- a pleasant Schloss perched on its crags, as Tourists know, where the Elbe sweeps into SaxonSwitzerland and its long stone-labyrinths,-at Tetschen the Austrians had taken post; had tried to block the River, driving piles into it, and tumbling boulders into.
These people needed to be torn out, their piles and they: Prosperous, correct to program, all the rest; not needing mention from us;-here are the few sparks from it that dwell in one's memory: We have heard of Weissenfels before; the same poor Weissenfels who was Wilhelmina's Wooer in old time, now on the verge' of sixty; an extremely polite and weakish old gentleman; accidentally preserved in History. One of those conspicuous " Human Clothes-Horses" phantasmal all but the digestive partwhich abound in that Eighteenth Century and others like it; and distress your Historical studies.
Poor old soul; now Feldmarschall and Commander-in-Chief here. Used to like his glass, they say; is still very poor, though now Duke in reality as well as title succeeded two egregious Brothers, some years since, who had been spendthrift: Died altogether, two years hence; and Wilhelmina heard no more of him.
At Pirna, and hither and thither in Saxon Switzerland, Friedrich certainly was. August 28th, junction at Leitmeritz thereupon. Boats coming on presently. Friedrich himself 10 See Orlich, ii. Austrian Bathyani, summoned hastily out of his Bavarian posts, to succour in this pressing emergency, has arrived in these neighbourhoods, - some 12, regulars under him, preceded by clouds of hussars, whom Ziethen smites a little, by way of handsel;-no other Austrian force to speak of hereabouts; and we are now between Bathyani and Prag.
September 2d, Camp on the Weissenberg there. The poor inhabitants, in spite of three sieges; the 10, raw militia men, mostly of Hungarian breed; the 4, regulars, and Harsch and old Ogilvy, are all disposed to do their best. Friedrich is naturally in haste to get hold of Prag. But he finds, on taking survey, that the sword-in-hand method is not now, as infeasible at all; that the place is in good posture of strength; and will need a hot battering to tear it open.
Owing to that accident at Tetschen, the siege-cannon are not yet come up: Except to say that Bathyani did now, more at his leisure, retire out of harm's way; and begin collecting Magazines at Pilsen far rearward, which may prove useful to Prince Karl, in the route Prince Karl is upon.
Siege-cannon having at last come September 8ththe batteries are all mounted: From three different quarters; from Bubenetsch northward; from the Upland of St. Lawrence famed Weissenberg, or White-Hill westward; and from the Ziscaberg eastward Hill of Zisca, where iron Zisca posted himself on a grand occasion once—which latter is a broad long. Hill, west end of it falling sheer over Prag; and on another point of it, highest point of all, the Praguers have a strong battery and works.
The Prag guns otherwise are not too effectual; planted mostly on low ground. By much the best Prag battery is this of the Ziscaberg. They offer a fascinating insight into public opinion about the American entry into the Second World War and current social and political issues of the time.
In addition to the interviews, the site also provides access to biographies of the interviewees, background detail on the methodology of the original research and technical details on the digitisation of the collection.
The site may be searched by subject keyword, or browsed by name or geographical location. RealPlayer software is required to access the audiofiles. The economics, politics, history, cultures, and societies of countries and regions in conflict and transition" is an ambition page of Dr Sam Vaknin - senior business correspondent of United Press International. The site contains journalism on the history, sociology, culture, politics and economics of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Balkan States.
The site also contains excerpts from Vaknin's widely acclaimed writings on what he calls 'malignant self-love': The site, then, is an interesting mix of politics and psychology written in an accessible, journalistic style.
The author does not always mention the date of his additions to the site;for some materials he notes that were written in the latest. Information should be handled with criticism as reflecting the points of view of the author of the site.
The project centres around a number of events taking place in and in order to remember the GDR, and to develop our understanding of how East German history, society, culture and politics fit into place in a unified Germany.
This website provides information on the project, along with information on a number of workshops and conferences. Users should note that, as of Junesome of the website for example, information on the conference is still under construction. Aftermath Aftermath is a website which examines the social and cultural aftermath of the First World War, especially in the UK, "when the boys came home" including: The author is a professional Web designer, and design pervades Aftermath and enhances it - even the distinctive poppy red colour scheme.
The majority of the extensive content of the site is database driven. The navigation bars to the left and at the top provide fast access with drop-down menus leading to index pages for the major divisions within the site. From there one can access the range of articles dealing with particular subjects including: News Clips a very useful reference archive of newspaper articles about the Great War since ; the 2 minutes silence at 11 o'clock on Armistice Day now part of remembrance ceremonies; Peace Day the official end of the war, marked by the signing three weeks earlier of the Versailles Treaty ; War Memorials; Bereavement personal accounts of loss ; Pilgrimage the history of visits to the Western Front ; A Land Fit For Heroes focuses on the grim peacetime reality for too many heroes, including J.
Priestley's account of a battalion reunion ; The Lost Generation the myth and reality of the s notion that Britain's troubles were due to the losses in the Great War ; Disenchantment extract from book by C.
Morton's London, from the s; Music Hall the post-war decline ; Crime. There is also a guestbook and other interactive message boards. Agents of social change: It provides online access to a number of primary source documents relating to the history of the women's feminist and civil rights movement in the United States from the ss. They also cover issues relating to the interplay of sex, class and race. The contents includes papers, letters, resolutions posters and documents from Dorothy Kenyon lawyer ; Constance Baker Motley civil rights attorney ; Mary Kaufman civil rights attorney ; Frances Fox Piven welfare rights advocate ; Gloria Steinem feminist writer ; the Women's Action Alliance and the National Congress of Neighborhood Women.
The site also contains a section with guidance and lesson plans for teachers. The data is available to order from the HDS, but registration is required. Data for this study were generated as part of a research project that aimed to reconstruct the Agricultural Geography of South East England inand However, only data from and were processed and made available. Details of acreages of all crops and grass and numbers of all categories of livestock recorded in the Agricultural Censuses of England and Wales for June and are given.
For the year of data are available for the following counties: For data for the following counties are available: It aims to be a network for "historians, literary scholars, theologians, musicologists and other early modernists [who] all share an interest in the practice of religion in the early modern world" and in particular for the examination of "religious practice and its meanings in early modern British culture".
The EMWN has two mains themes: The website has full details of the aims, steering group, members, and funding. This project would be of interest obviously to those studying this period of British history, but also as a test case of utilising new technologies to make media archives more widely available. Weblog postings are referenced, using footnotes, and many postings are very well illustrated with old posters and adverts that employ the theme. The website is searchable by keyword.
Alcohol, temperance and prohibition The 'Alcohol, Temperance and Prohibition' website at Brown University Library is a digital collection of primary source materials covering the Prohibition movement in the USA.
They are part of a larger body of material in the Alcohol and Addiction Studies Collection and from items across the Brown Library resources. They offer interest to researchers in American history, social studies and related areas at all levels and have been collected to illustrate the range of material available in the library holdings.
All the digital items are in the public domain and include pamphlets leading up to and during the prohibition era, continuing through to its end inwith the 21st Amendment. The layout of the site is straightforward with an overview of the collection, various browse and search options and an essay by Leah Rae Berk 'Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoric'.
The quality of the images is high and they may be enlarged for further detail. This is a user-friendly site with detailed information for citation and reference, which gathers together sufficient material for a comprehensive insight of a significant era in American history.
This online resource is a companion site to a PBS television programme about Tupperware, produced as part of the American Experience series. Sub-titled "building an empire, bowl by bowl", the film "charts the origins of the small plastics company that unpredictably became a cultural phenomenon". Information about the film itself is provided, with a transcript, full-text primary sources and links to secondary information.
The website explores the working lives of women in the US during the twentieth century, with specific reference to Tupperware and the company's method of recruiting housewives for direct home selling in new post-war suburban neighbourhoods. Encompassing the history of plastics manufacturing and American culture in the s, the website also contains a number of special features, such as motivational writings from the s, video clips of Tupperware Jubilees, a timeline of women, work and plastics history and biographies of Earl Silas Tupper and Brownie Wise.
A gallery of images from Tupper's 'inventions' notebooks are provided and include his ideas for a fish-propelled boat and his neck tie shaper.
An illustrated essay on 'events' covers direct selling and American consumerism, and a teachers' guide suggests activities relating to brand names, positive thinking, economics, geography and history. The American Jewish Yearbook is regarded by some as the authoritative account of trends and happenings in Jewish society. The website is very simple to use: Each of the yearly volumes is then further divided into, for example, table of contents, forematter, calendars, index, and yearly issues.
The yearbooks are available in PDF format. Analysis of biographical accounts of working class people The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited text file, though to make use of this material you must first register with the HDS further information and instructions are supplied.
The resource comprises summary details regarding biographical accounts concerning working-class people who moved from traditional inner-urban accommodation to owner-occupation, or suburban council housing, during the interwar period. The project examined the major shifts in household consumption patterns that accompanied this movement. The sources used included published and unpublished autobiographies and contemporary interviews, though most were taken from oral history archives and studies.
Work on the site started in with the aim of providing an online history of anarchists and anarchist movements, as well as the online provision of the collected works of major anarchists.
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A large part of the site is dedicated to influential anarchists. This section includes biographical information, full-text of a large number of works, bibliographies, portraits and commentaries. The site also includes a section covering significant historical events, such as the Paris Commune, the Spanish Civil War and the Haymarket Massacre.
The site is strong on primary sources: A lengthy and up-to-date bibliography is included. The bibliography is available either in an alphabetical list or divided into categories.
These categories include works specifically relating to: Additionally present is a list of links which have been divided into categories.
The website has a clear structure and can be searched or browsed. Petitions represent appeals for the righting of wrongs and for favours from the king, but additionally reveal social, political and linguistic information.
Anna Jameson, Harriet Martineau and their friends: Both were involved in the reform campaigns of the day, such as the abolition of slavery and "the woman question", and had contact with other important literary women most notably Elizabeth Gaskell and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Their letters offer an insight into women's history as well as literature.
The database contains detailed records of both women's correspondence, although the letters are not available in full-text. Each record details the author, addressee, people mentioned in the letter, and bibliographic information for the location of the actual source.
Biographical information is provided for the author, addressee, and those mentioned and there are also links to relevant external sites. It is possible to search the databases individually or simultaneously, and in both search forms there is the option to search for author, addressee or people mentioned. As such it is possible to execute very specific searches.
Published by the East Riding of Yorkshire Council, the site advises local UK teachers on how to approach and teach this subject. The site does not reproduce the Amsterdam exhibition, it does tell Anne Frank's story and that of her family, and recounts the history of the Holocaust through the testimony of contemporary witnesses and other historical documents. In addition, the site offers a range of teaching materials and primary sources, such as an eye-witness account of the liberation of Belsen near the end of the Second World War.
The site also contains an extensive range of links to other Holocaust-related Web resources, as well as galleries and a discussion forum. This site includes information about: Anne Frank; the house where she and her family hid from the Nazis circa ; the history of her famous diary - including images and transcriptions of extracts - and its publication after her death; resources for teaching about the Second World War and the persecution of the Jews in Europe especially during World War II, and the Holocaust; as well as links to online resources relating to the diverse issues raised by the issues involved.
Teachers will particularly find a wealth of information here, especially historical images and videos. Researchers who study memory and commemoration will find the history of the transformation of the house where the Frank family and their friends hid into a museum to be interesting and informative.
In the Activities menu, scholars should also check the Research subpages, which outlines library holdings and academic studies sponsored by the museum. Further information is supplied giving instructions. A forty-year time series of social, economic and political indicators. The variables include data on expenditures from the federal budget by various departments, agencies, and commissions, measures of the political characteristics of the US Congress, business and consumer expenditures, and attributes of the population, approximately 1, card-image equivalents.
Discussions cover not only Old English language and literature, but also Anglo-Saxon archaeology, history, philosophy, and the arts. The archive contains postings from to the present day. Postings of interest can be marked for later printing or downloading. Unfortunately the pages surrounding the search engine are all empty so, for example, there are no instructions given for joining the Ansax-l email discussion list.
The website provides information about the Collection, an Ansel Adams chronology, a bibliography and related resources. The photographs can be searched or browsed by subject; enlargeable JPEG images can be viewed. It presents an interesting range of textual information on folk magic in Britain and its various incarnations over the past eight centuries.
The site concentrates on those items used for preventative magic, counter-magic or spells. A number of short articles cover topics such as witch-bottles commonly hidden underneath the hearth or thresholddried cats thought to exercise their sixth sense after deathconcealed shoes as traps for the devil, and ritual marks in buildings. Enhanced by excellent images and bibliographical details, this site is likely to be of interest to those studying early modern social history, popular belief, or witchcraft and magic in Britain.
Student and researchers of Turkish literature and culture will find this an invaluable resource with a wealth of primary material to explore. The oral narratives themselves may be searched according to recording date dating back tonarrator or location, or the user may simply browse through the collection.
Texts are available as PDFs. The user may also listen to many of these epics as well as access substantial background information. This excellent archive makes available otherwise difficult to access material related to Turkish literature and culture and therefore provides a vital service to students, researchers and teachers of the field.
The purpose is to offer advice and information about archival resources that can be used in the National Curriculum by schools and by lifelong learners researching genealogy, house and local history. There are online educational resources provided by repositories for teachers to use.
A gateway to a online resources that relate to archives and education in general is provided, with a brief summary of each site.
The "Your History" section: A noticeboard publicises local and national events at which people can learn more about archives, including record office exhibitions and open daysand local and family history courses and conferences. Review of the History of Jews of France'. Some articles are fully posted. The journal covers research conducted in the fields of French Jewish social and cultural history, concentrating mainly on the 19th and 20th centuries. All articles are in French, with occasional English abstracts.
Tables of contents posted here run back to Volume 34 in This page is a subsite of Cairn; a French site which posts some journals online on a pay-per-view basis for articles. Full, free, access to tables of contents and introductory editorial remarks, as well as some article abstracts is generally provided. To get complete access to articles, users must register and pay on the site. It has been developed by a research group at the University of Valladolid Spainand funded by the European Union and the Spanish ministry of culture.
The archive offers digital versions of texts and handbooks of falconry written during the period between the 13th and 17th centuries in any of the languages of the Iberian peninsula. A bibliography is provided for each of the texts, as well as facsimile images and transcriptions. Although the aim is to create an Ibero-American archive, most of the resources are concerned with the Iberian peninsula. The authors have created a list of vocabulary and an anthology of fragments of historical texts which may be used as a quick means to become familiar with the topic.
Likewise, for those interested in researching the history of falconry there are bibliographical details of a large number of works and authors from all times. The site features a brief history of the archive, which was formally founded in The holdings include administrative, regional, local, ecclesiastical, municipal, and fiscal records. The site is of interest to those who are studying German or Polish history. The language of the site is Polish.
The archives have changed hands many times, as most Polish archival collections, and also suffered loss and damage throughout their history. The funds of the archives are particularly strong in nineteenth and twentieth cenury records. The subsite dedicated to the events and publications is rich and up to date. It features information on the opening hours, collections, and location of the archive. The chronological range of the holdings spans There is an online description of the collections, which consist of: The strength of the collection really lies in the nineteenth century range.
The birth, death, and marriage records are also useful for the genealogist or historian. Publications of the archives are well presented and the possibility of online purchase is offered to the interested.
A good but basic site of use to those carrying out research on Siedlce and its environs. The archives have a long tradition in this area, but were formally founded in During the twentieth century, its records were taken by the Russians and the Germans and at the end of the Second World War were to be found scattered in Belarus, Moscow, Lithuania, and St Petersburg. The nineteenth century is far better represented.
A selection of important documents registers, privileges is offered digitised on the site. A good archive for those interested in the history of Poland's new eastern borderlands Kresy and their varied populations.
The site provides the usual information about the archive's opening hours, location, and collections. The site features a listing of the main holdings which include: The municipal records date from the fourteenth century.
The collections of the archives can be searched through the main database hosted on the web site of the central State Archives in Poland. This site provides a good resource for the researcher who is working on German Bromberg or Polish history.
The site features the history, structure and preservation of the archive. Of use to the researchers is the information on the access to holdings. The records are divided into the following categories: The archive also has a good collection of maps and private papers. The catalogues of the holdings can be searched via SEZAM, the database run by the State Archives of Poland with several town archives and significant cultural institutions of the country. The archive is part of the Baltic Connections project.
An excellent site for those researchign Polish, German, or Pomeranian history. There are details of the opening hours, accessibility of the archive, and the holdings.
The site details the territorial range of the archive, the most interesting holdings, a history of the archive, and a list of links to websites of a similar nature. The earliest documentation dates from the fifteenth century, but the collections mainly date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They include documentation on the guilds, local councils, judicial records, and educational institutions. There is an online exhibition of the most precious treasures of the archive, from the early modern period, partitions, the inter-war period, the Second World War and the second half of the twentieth century.
The archive is divided into separate sections, located in various departments and the earliest documentation comes from the thirteenth century.
The archive holds much of the early state documentation for Poland, from the period when Cracow was the Polish capital. There are details of the archive's conservation, educational, publishing, and training activities.
Of use to researchers are the forms which can be downloaded for requests to the archives for reproduction and borrowing services. The online exhibitions on the archive's holdings, stamps, iconography, cartography and temporary exhibitions enrich this site. The holdings of all branches of the Krakow state archive can be search throught the SEZAM database, however the keywords and strings are available only in Polish. The site provides the usual information about the archive and its reproduction services, opening hours, and location.
The territorial range covered by the archive covers the lands between the Bug, San, and the Vistula. The archive has a wonderful collection of early modern records, as well as the founding charter of Lublin from The site is of interest to those researching the area of Lublin or those carrying out geneaological research. The holdings focus mainly on the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries and are particularly strong for the period of the PRL or the Polish People's Republic.
The usual information on opening hours, location and accesibility are provided, as well as an online enquiry form. The site has good versions in English, German and Ukrainian. There are the usual details on accessibility, collections, opening hours and reprographic services.
The collection contains holdings dating from One of the most interesting and extensive collections is that of documentation from the Greek-Catholic Bishopric between the end of the thirteenth century and There are also rich collections on eminent aristocratic Polish families such as the Czartoryskis, Lubomirskis, Potockis, and Tarnowskis.
There are also records of the Jewish community. The site also features the tables of contents of the "Historical-Archival Yearly". The archive has been functioning since the early modern period, and found itself in the hands of the Austrians during the partitions. This is elaborated on in the brief history of the archive featured on the site.
The archives are stronger in nineteenth and twentieth century holdings, but do have some municipal records from the early modern period. Of interest to genealogists and historians, are the registry records of Roman Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, and Protestant communities.
For those interested in the post-war history of Poland, the Radom archives are extremely rich in holdings on the PZPR.
The Polish variant of the site has a guest book. It has a particularly strong collection of records on the Jewish community, which is assigned to a dedicated department The Jewish History Research Centre within the archive.
It has a good collection of family records of the Lubomirskis, Jaworskis, Potockis, and Mycielskis. A good site of use to those carrying out genealogical or historical research in this area of Poland.
The site is in Polish, with a brief English description of the history of the archive and main collections. The Russian version was empty at the time of the review. The holdings and collections of the archive focus mainly on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with older records held at the Lublin State Archives.
Information on the opening hours, accessibility, and location of the archive is to be found on the site, as well as a history of the archives, its organisation, and its publications. The collections contain mainly judicial, administrative, regional, fiscal, and industrial records. The site is of use to those carrying out research into this area of eastern Poland. The site is in Slovene, and English. The usual information about opening hours, accessibility, location, and collections are to be found on the site, as well as a brief history of the archive.
Some of the holdings date from the ninth century, and consist of municipal, manorial, personal, ecclesiastical and judicial records. Collections can be searched on the online database. There is also a link to the section containing film archives. This is an excellent site for those carrying out research on Slovenia.