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Game controller A North American Super NES game controller from the early s Video game can use several types of input devices to translate human actions to a game, the most common game controllers are keyboard and mouse for " PC gamesconsoles usually come with specific gamepadshandheld consoles have built in buttons. Other game controllers are commonly used for specific games like racing wheelslight guns or dance pads.
Digital cameras can also be used as game controllers capturing movements of the body of the player. As technology continues to advance, more can be added onto the controller to give the player a more immersive experience when playing different games. There are some controllers that have presets so that the buttons are mapped a certain way to make playing certain games easier.
Along with the presets, a player can sometimes custom map the buttons to better accommodate their play style. On keyboard and mouse, different actions in the game are already preset to keys on the keyboard. Most games allow the player to change that so that the actions are mapped to different keys that are more to their liking.
The companies that design the controllers are trying to make the controller visually appealing and also feel comfortable in the hands of the consumer. An example of a technology that was incorporated into the controller was the touchscreen. It allows the player to be able to interact with the game differently than before. The person could move around in menus easier and they are also able to interact with different objects in the game.
They can pick up some objects, equip others, or even just move the objects out of the players path. Another example is motion sensor where a persons movement is able to be captured and put into a game. Some motion sensor games are based on where the controller is. The reason for that is because there is a signal that is sent from the controller to the console or computer so that the actions being done can create certain movements in the game. Other type of motion sensor games are webcam style where the player moves around in front of it, and the actions are repeated by a game character.
Video game industry practices Developers use various tools to create video games. Here an editor is fine-tuning the virtual camera system. Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment, is frequently a cross-disciplinary field.
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Video game developersas employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers.
Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program, including sound designersmusicians, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the game designer.
All of these are managed by producers. In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game.
As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more. This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets,  where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited RAM or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform e.
Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment.
Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding In Mayone game project was reported to have a development staff of New gameplay modes can also become available, for instance, Call of Duty and its zombie modes,    a multiplayer mode for Mushroom Wars or a higher difficulty level for Metro: Expansion packs Main article: Expansion pack A variation of downloadable content is expansion packs.
Unlike DLC, expansion packs add a whole section to the game that either already exists in the game's code or is developed after the game is released. Expansions add new maps, missions, weapons, and other things that weren't previously accessible in the original game. An example of an expansion is Bungie 's Destinywhich had the Rise of Iron expansion. The expansion added new weapons, new maps, and higher levels, and remade old missions.
Expansions are added to the base game to help prolong the life of the game itself until the company is able to produce a sequel or a new game altogether.
Developers may plan out their game's life and already have the code for the expansion in the game, but inaccessible by players, who later unlock these expansions, sometimes for free and sometimes at an extra cost. Some developers make games and add expansions later, so that they could see what additions the players would like to have.
There are also expansions that are set apart from the original game and are considered a stand-alone game, such as Ubisoft 's expansion Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag Freedom's Cry, which features a different character than the original game. Mod computer gaming Many games produced for the PC are designed such that technically oriented consumers can modify the game.
These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Developers such as id SoftwareValve CorporationCrytekBethesdaEpic Games and Blizzard Entertainment ship their games with some of the development tools used to make the game, along with documentation to assist mod developers.
The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they may be a factor in the commercial success of some games. Cheating video games Cheating in computer games may involve cheat codes and hidden spots implemented by the game developers,   modification of game code by third parties,   or players exploiting a software glitch.
Modifications are facilitated by either cheat cartridge hardware or a software trainer. Glitch Software errors not detected by software testers during development can find their way into released versions of computer and video games.
This may happen because the glitch only occurs under unusual circumstances in the game, was deemed too minor to correct, or because the game development was hurried to meet a publication deadline. Glitches can range from minor graphical errors to serious bugs that can delete saved data or cause the game to malfunction.
In some cases publishers will release updates referred to as patches to repair glitches. Sometimes a glitch may be beneficial to the player; these are often referred to as exploits. Easter eggs Easter eggs are hidden messages or jokes left in games by developers that are not part of the main game. The results can vary from a simple printed message or image, to a page of programmer credits or a small videogame hidden inside an otherwise serious piece of software.
Videogame cheat codes are a specific type of Easter egg, in which entering a secret command will unlock special powers or new levels for the player.
Game studies Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities.
The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama". That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction. Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodecka fictional piece of technology from Star Trekarguing for the video game as a medium in which the player is allowed to become another person, and to act out in another world.
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay.
For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game Tomb Raidersaying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft 's body, already analyzed to death by film theoristsare irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it. While many games rely on emergent principlesvideo games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game.
The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player. In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist.
For instance, take a racing game in which cars are programmed to avoid crashing, and they encounter an obstacle in the track: The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
Emulation Project64a Nintendo 64 emulator, running Star Fox 64 on a Windows 8 platform An emulator is a program that replicates the behavior of a video game consoleallowing games to run on a different platform from the original hardware.
Emulators exist for PCssmartphones and consoles other than the original. Emulators are generally used to play old games, hack existing gamestranslate unreleased games in a specific regionor add enhanced features to games like improved graphics, speed up or down, bypass regional lockouts, or online multiplayer support. Some manufacturers have released official emulators for their own consoles. Virtual Console is part of Nintendo's strategy for deterring video game piracy.
Bleemcreating an emulator for a proprietary video game console is legal.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message The November Nielsen Active Gamer Study, taking a survey of 2, regular gamersfound that the U. The age group among male players has expanded significantly in the 25—40 age group.
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For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between men and women. More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres e. One survey of over game developers returned responses from only 2.
Race and video games When comparing today's industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry. While the market for teen and young adult men is still a strong market, it is the other demographics which are posting significant growth. Eighty-two percent of gamers are 18 years of age or older. Forty-two percent of all players are women and women over 18 years of age are one of the industry's fastest growing demographics.
Twenty-nine percent of game players are over the age of 50, an increase from nine percent in Sixty-five percent of gamers play games with other gamers in person. Fifty-five percent of gamers play games on their phones or handheld device. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system.
On the left side of the system is an external 3.
The link cable was originally designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris. This processor is similar to an Intel in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present.
However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over theparticularly bit manipulation, are present. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from instruction set also. The IC also contains integrated sound generation. And 16 in maximum. Specifications for this unit remain exactly the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen. This new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for later Nintendo handhelds; every one of them since has been available in more than one color.
Most common are the yellow, red, clear and black, Green is fairly scarce but blue and white are the rarest. The white remains the rarest of all the Play it Loud colors.
A rare, limited edition Manchester United Game Boy is red, with the logos of the team emblazoned on it.