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FM NewsTalk is St. Louis' FM connection to Fox News Radio and talk radio personalities like Jamie Allman, Glenn Beck, Dana Loesch, Dave Glover, Sean. Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to Community radio stations are operated, owned, and influenced by the One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the .. radio station is located in Jimma University (in the south-west of Ethiopia). FM radio is the most recent phenomenon around in Addis Ababa. . describe that the history of media sector in Ethiopia dates back more than a century. .. FM Addis beams its programs 24 hours a day in Amharic for residents of . of journalism in Ethiopia is a wide topic from print medium to online journalism.
It has also impact for the development democracy in the country. Because human is social or communal in life style. To live in group communication is vital: So it is possible to take the above idea as a starting point of journalism as its oral aspect.
But when we see the professional journalism it is new for Ethiopia or other countries in the world, when it compared from other discipline. Professional journalism is mostly related to the development of print and broadcast media in the world. It is the same in Ethiopia too. The begging of journalism has some historical evidence that the hand written sheets produced by Blata Gebre Egziabhere around and Aimero Gazeta from are widely considered as the original News paper in Ethiopia.
The age of news paper in Ethiopia is not more than a century. And its development is not good compared to other countries in the world. In fact development is universal if a country has economic development that will bring social development. When there is social development the need for freedom of speech and freedom of expression is also become important, at that time the development of journalism will be vital for a given country.
Sometimes the nature of the political system also has great effect on the development of journalism Because of the above cases the development of journalism in Ethiopia is in its infant stage.
The owner of most media is still government. There is limitation on privatization of the media to the privet organization due to lack of skilled journalist in privet sector and lack of trust from the government side. To see the gap between Ethiopian journalism and professional journalism in the rest world 2. To identify the real problem of Ethiopian journalism and journalists 3. To understand the current status of Ethiopian journalism 5. We have different documents and historical evidences to see some aspects of Ethiopian journalism from these document sources.
It is possible to see the current status of journalism by observing the actual activities of our journalist and their products around us. The writer tried to see different newspaper like Adis zemen, Ethiopian Herald, Reporter, Bekur and the like.EthiopikaLink (Ethiopian Radio): Boyfriend for Rent in Ethiopia?
Faintly The writer took some information from ETV and Amhara Television to fulfill the source document for this term paper. It is also possible to say descriptive research type attempts to describe systematically a situation to provide information about the historical development of Ethiopian Journalism.
The Data collection method which the writer used for this term paper is observation from documents available in our library or from the internet. The writer tried to analysis facts which have gotten from different thesis and some other presentation on the website.
Zelizer tried to point out that communication is nature of human being and it is natural to communicate each other on some issue that is why he said that the beginning of journalism is since people recognize a need to share information. Zelizer also show that study of journalism is resent phenomenon.
Zelizer and most other scholars agreed that the beginning of journalism is 17th century. Printed newspapers first appeared in Europe at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Journalism history emerged from two sources. The first was a kind of general intellectual interest in the evolution of means of communication.
And the second source for journalism history was more occupational. As news work developed and professionalized, it constructed a history for itself by projecting its identity backward into the past. So journalism history grew up with journalism, and its historical awareness is a feature of its actual development.
As Heyer enlightenment thinkers in Europe were particularly attentive to how literacy, then alphabetic literacy, and finally the printing press occasioned deep structural changes in social, cultural, and political life Heyer, He tried to show that the development of journalism is mostly linked to the development of education and print media.
According to Habermas the rise of a bourgeois public sphere transformed the newspaper from an instrument of commerce, on the one hand, and religious controversy, on the other, into an instrument of continual political argumentation and deliberation. Habermas, Newspapers became central resources in the age of bourgeois revolutions.
The Glorious Revolution in England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution all produced vigorous news cultures and active combat in print media. This play great role for the development of journalism, in the western countries. Chalaby,at the beginning of the twentieth century, journalism in the West was ready to begin a professionalization project. The process was manifest in broadly based phenomena like the founding of press clubs and associations and of schools of journalism, along with the crafting of codes of ethics.
Since then journalism has been expanding in both types of media and technology Brhanu,p-1 Tadese Zinaye on his presentation also describe that the history of media sector in Ethiopia dates back more than a century.
He said that Some historical evidences suggests that the hand written sheet produced by Blata Gebre Egziabhere around probably preceded both of the above papers. As Tadese Zinaye Described Emperor Minilik, who is the founder of modern Ethiopia, played a significant role in establishing diplomatic relations with European States.
This helped many foreigners to establish printing presses in the capital city, Addis Ababa. The starting of Minilik II School, first in the country had its share of increasing the literates among the people to enjoy the printed word around their environments to get information what is happen there.
In addition to that Tadese presented Haile Selassie I evinced interest in the establishment of a printing press as well as the publication of newspapers and educational materials. Tadese added that Berhanena Selam an Amharic newspaper was also founded in with its circulation to copies and first monthly magazine consisting different European Languages including an Amharic section was founded by Mr.
Until the invasion of Italy, many small hand presses were continued to be imported from various countries of Europe. During the Italian invasion the printing facilities were put disordered and it took some time to restart it after liberation.
However, after taking some shape a number of weeklies, monthlies and periodicals stared being published in Addis Ababa and in Asmara. News papers such as Addis Zemen, Sendek Alamachen were launched in Publication of other popular two news papers Ethiopian Herald and Ye zareyito Ethiopia was started in the subsequent years.
Tadese noted that, at that point the traditional means of message dissemination to the masses, drum biting and verbal shouting, totally replaced by news papers. Inan official Negarit Gazetha was founded. Some writers like Getachew the historical development of journalism in Ethiopia is divided in to four stages. The next phase from to is the period of Italian occupation where the development of news paper was terminated. The third phase was from to called post Italian occupation some development of Ethiopian press in the three successive governments have been observed.
And the last stage is the present stage which has comparatively better development in the quantity of newspaper in Ethiopia. This shows that the development of print media in Ethiopia is on the way. The Italians handed over the installation, but retrieved it soon following the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in He point that Short wave broadcasting was resumed in and then in the subsequent years Radio Ethiopia operated from three locations —Addis Ababa, Harar and Asmara was broadcast in six languages.
According to his presentation the World federation of Lutheran Church broadcaster, Radio Voice of the Gospel aired religious and entertaining materials at the time.
Tadese explain that Radio Ethiopia, which now has both national and external services broadcast its programs in eight vernacular languages English, French and Arabic.
Radio Fana in its short wave and medium wave programs putting news and various educational and entertaining programs which has the reach of all over the country. Educational Media Agency owned by Ministry of education broadcasts educational programs in more than 15 languages and in the English language for high school students on big cities which have access around the country Tades show that beforethere were no regional broadcast media and still now there is no television station.
However, there are now more than three regional radio stations. According to Terje S. It continued to be actively used as the official broadcaster by the communist Dergue regime — The current editorial policy from only in Amharic expresses that it is a government media institution, and its primary function is to serve the public.
It is a major source of information for the Ethiopian government media, but also for foreign media outlets through exchange agreements, such as Reuters and AFP. It is scarcely circulated outside of the capital city Addis Ababa, but is distributed to for instance foreign embassies and is as such thought to reach many decision-makers and stakeholders.
An educational TV broadcasting project was initiated inand by there were five programs covering a range of topics for students up to grade eight. It gradually expanded in to adult education and to cover the whole of the country in At the start of this channel TV Africa was broadcasting its programs to Addis and its surrounding audience.
But, currently is transmitting programs prepared by Addis Ababa city media agency to serve the people around the capital Addis. This period was a period when most of the African countries won their freedom from colonialists Ethiopian Television which was established in is a later phenomenon in its service as compared to other mass medium. The development FM in Ethiopia Tadese zinaye on his presentation point out that FM broadcasting was launched for the first time in the country by radio Ethiopia The launch of this FM programs opened the airwaves in that it started interactive radio by establishing live phone-in productions.
These programs engaged the audience in discussions over significant issues and problems of the public. The Addis Ababa city administration has started FM Radio broadcasting in the beginning of targeting Addis audience.
Both stations focus on social, business and trade, political, sports, traffic etc. Some other two privet owners Zami and Adey secured their license and currently are airing their programs by leasing air time from radio Ethiopia. Of the estimated practicing journalists in the country, are employed by the state media in some form.
Ethiopian News Agency has journalists in total Teshome, The Writter add that the major media institutions in Ethiopia have always been state-owned. According to Gudeta In Ethiopia the press has been liberalized since the downfall of the socialist military government in The FDRE constitution and the subsequent press proclamation have provided recognition to the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press which in turn contributed to the proliferation of the private press.
However, the private as well as the government press were not functioning in line with recognized journalistic standards. There was a north-south dichotomy in the press. Some of the private presses were serving as a mouthpiece for certain opposition political parties while others were highly affiliated with the incumbent government. Still others were established to promote parochial ethnic politics. The government press was also serving as a conduit to the government propaganda.
Consequently, journalistic ethics and self-regulation were highly disregarded Gudeta Seifu, Birhnu said that the historical development of the Ethiopian press is mainly featured by the history of government press.
Most writer tried to show that the press and journalism of Ethiopia is owned by the government. Tadese show that Ethiopian mass media are entirely urban based. The location of the stations and their content by and large is urban oriented and government activities focused. The participation of the larger audience, especially the rural people participation is not formulated based on known or contextualized communication models.
Tadese Zinaye, According to Tadese, both in print, Radio and Television during the monarchy era were putting news and programs emanated from the center.
The lives and activities of the rulers of the time were prioritized and emphasized in news coverage. The participation of the larger audience was not given appropriate attention though. The focus of both of them is on the activities of the monarchy's activities, the messages delivered are more of urbanized.
During both —the monarchy and Derg regimes- the media control is totally in the hands of the government, and also the flow of information is checked and controlled by the governments of each period. Television, and media owner ship in Ethiopia. It is also focused to see the impact of the ruling government on each medium to see the development of journalism in Ethiopia in the last century.
The analysis which present in this paper is shallow it is not possible to go to deep analysis due to shortage of time and resources. The source of the analysis is mostly from websites and documents available in the library. The writer tried to look different websites like Ethiopian press agency, Ethiopian radio and Television Agency to find current source to show the current development of journalism.
So the analysis is done based on the above facts to show some aspects of journalism development in Ethiopia. It is the first aspect of mass media in the world as well as in Ethiopia. The introduction of Aemiro Newspaper, which was hand written at its commencement, in heralded the beginning of journalism in Ethiopia. One scene on a mural depicts the attack by Bolivian Air Force planes in when the country was under military rule.
During the early s 26 radio stations were in operation, all in the mining districts of the highlands. At the time, the miners' unions in Bolivia were still powerful and considered among the most politically advanced in Latin America. In times of peace and democracy the miners' radio stations were integrated into the daily life of the community, becoming an effective replacement for telephone and postal service.
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People would receive their mail through the stations and post messages, which were read several times during the day: In times of political upheaval, the union radio stations would become the only trustworthy source of information. As the military captured newspapers, radio and TV stations in the capital and other cities, the only information available would come from the miners' radio stations. They would join the cadena minera "mining chain" until the army penetrated the mining camps and mounted an assault on the stations, which were defended sometimes to the death by the workers.
The miners' radio stations would air reports on the political situation; they would also link for live transmissions when an important sporting or cultural event took place in the mining district. Other than that, each station was fully independent of the others.
The miners' radio stations were important because of the importance of mining in Bolivia; Bolivian miners were also influential because for several decades they had a powerful means to communicate their ideas. As the importance of mining in Bolivia declined during the s, the unions were weakened and some of the radio stations disappeared along with their mining districts.
List of community radio stations in Canada Community radio stations in Canada often target commercially underserved minority-language communities such as Franco-OntariansAcadiansAnglo-Quebecers or First Nations. These stations are often volunteer-run and operated by cooperatives or other not-for-profit corporations.
In larger cities, community-oriented programming more commonly airs on campus radio stations, although some cities do have community radio stations as well.
The majority of those stations are affiliated with Missinipi Broadcasting Corporationan aboriginal public radio network. It also requires stations to offer diverse programming that reflects the needs and interests of the community, including: The CRTC maintains a list of community stations.
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Most stations are classified as "Type B"; however, a community radio station which operates as the sole local media service serving its community — such as an English language community radio station in Quebec, a First Nations radio station or a community radio station in a small town with no other local radio stations at all — is classified as "Type A", granting it a more flexible set of regulatory and license requirements to accommodate the wider range of community programming interests that such a station needs to serve.
The amount of community participation and self-management varies. Radio Latacunga was associated with a project in which indigenous organizations were supplied with simple equipment to record weekly programs for broadcast in the early morning.
Unlike in Bolivia, trade-union radio has historically not been influential in Ecuador. The stations were planned to open up possibilities for everyone, especially regular citizens, to express themselves socially, culturally, politically and spiritually, thus preparing each and every member of the community to participate in decision-making.
Sanjay Verma, Ambassador and Mr. Between Dec to Feb This will also allow the exchange of staff and development of expertise. The objective for training was to provide: The Community radio station is located in Jimma University in the south-west of Ethiopia. Guatemala[ edit ] There are more than community radio stations operating in Guatemala, but the indigenous communities don't have explicit rights to use radio frequencies, though their right to exist is guaranteed by the country's Peace Accords.
Hungary[ edit ] The first community stations began as piratesbroadcasting political free-speech and music programs after the change from socialism. Since a new category arose: Bymore than 70 such microstations have begun broadcasting throughout the country. There are village stations, small-town stations, university stations, subcultural and religious stations. India[ edit ] In India the campaign to legitimise community radio began in the mids, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February that "airwaves are public property".
A declaration calling for the establishment of a third tier of broadcasting, i. A suggestion that AIR's local stations should allocate regular airtime for community broadcasting was put forward.
Requests were also made for grant of licences to NGOs and other non-profit making groups for running community radio stations. Subsequently, UNESCO made available a portable production and transmission "briefcase radio station" kit to VOICES to do experimental broadcasts of programmes for a hands-on learning experience towards the objective of setting up an independently-run community radio station.
A UNESCO sponsored workshop, hosted by an Andhra Pradesh NGO, Deccan Development Society DDS from July 17—20, in Hyderabad issued the 'Pastapur Initiative' on community radio that urged the government to take its intentions of freeing broadcasting from state monopoly to its logical conclusion, by making media space available not only to private players but also to communities.
This landmark document urged the government to create a three-tier structure of broadcasting in India by adding non-profit community radio to the already existing state-owned public radio and private commercial radio. In South India, Deccan Development Society worked with Dalit women's collectives to start Sangam Radio, the programmes for which were made by the community, but were 'narrowcast', i.
In the west, Kutch Mahila Vikas Sanghatan a civil society group in Gujarat worked with the women in Kutch District to produce programmes on local developmental and cultural issues, and started broadcasting on the nearest All India Radio Station. In the northern part, Alternative for India Development made programmes with community members in Garhwa block of Jharkhandand broadcast programmes over the Daltonganj All India Radio Station.
Community Groups in Chambaand Rudraprayagboth in Uttarakhand started producing participatory programmes and broadcast over the World Space Satellite Radio network. By earlythe government of India released the first set of community radio guidelines drafted by Dr. Hari Om Srivastava and also the technology to be used but unfortunately, restricted eligibility to educational institutions only.
Marginalized and voiceless communities continued to remain outside the ambit of the then released community radio policy guidelines. Anna FM was India's first campus "community" radio station. Programmes are produced by students as well as community. Anna university station was launched on 1 February All the applicants to CR in India as well as representatives from 13 countries attended.
Government of India studied the working of this station along with the change of ruling party in India Several of the lessons learnt at Anna CR were incorporated in the Policy document in Practitioners and community radio advocates continued to push the government towards expanding the mandate of the community radio sector to include communities living in rural, remote and hilly areas of the country.
On 16 Novemberthe government of India implemented new Community Radio Guidelines,  which permit NGOseducational institutions and agricultural institutions to own and operate community radio stations. By 30 Novemberthere were 38 operational community radio stations in the country.
Of these, two are run by NGOs and the rest by educational institutions. The first community-based radio station licensed to an NGO as distinct from campus-based radio was launched on 15 Octoberwhen Sangham Radio, licensed to Deccan Development Society, in Pastapur village, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh state went on the air at Therefore, Sangham Radio, based on the policy guidelines, is second community radio station of India.
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Sangham Radio, which broadcasts on The community radio station is managed by "General" Narsamma and Algole Narsamma. Under the community radio policy, any not-for-profit "legal entity"—except individuals, political parties and their affiliatescriminal and banned organizations—can apply for a CR license.
The licence entitles them to operate a watt Effective Radiated Power radio station, with a coverage area of approximately a km radius. A maximum antenna height of 30 meters is allowed. Community radio stations are expected to produce at least 50 percent of their programmes locally, as much as possible in the local language or dialect.
The stress is on developmental programming, although there is no explicit ban on entertainment. News programmes are banned on community radio in India as they are on commercial FM radio. However, the government has clarified that certain categories of news are permitted on radio, including sports news and commentaries, information on traffic and weather conditions, coverage of cultural events and festivals, information on academic events, public announcements pertaining to utilities such as electricity and the water supply, disaster warnings and health alerts.
Five minutes of advertising per hour is allowed on community radio. Sponsored programs are not allowed, except when the program is sponsored by the government at the local or state level. This reservation is informally done and the WPC does not have any official communication or guidelines with respect to spectrum allocation for community radio in the FM band.
This means that if a radio station is allotted Further, once a radio station is allotted a frequency by the WPC, that particular frequency is blocked for a radius of kilometers. Activists and community workers from across the country have banded together under the aegis of the Community Radio Forum of India to coordinate training and support for community radio stations, and to work for a more proactive community radio policy.
Members from the Community Radio Forum participate in screening committee meetings to screen potential applicants, and the organization is also recognized as a national level self-regulatory body in the Draft Broadcast Bill as published by the Government of India.
By 1 Julythe Ministry of Information and Broadcasting announced that applications for CR licenses had been received, including under the old campus-radio guidelines. Grant of Permission Agreements were signed with applicants, and 68 community radio stations were on the air.
By 1 Februarythe Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had received a total of community radio licence applications. Grant of Permission Agreements had been signed with applicants and community radio stations were on air.
This move provoked widespread protest from functional community radio stations, advocacy bodies like Community Radio Forum and Community Radio Association of India, and even the Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcast has gone on record to say that his Ministry's views were not sought before the decision was taken. He also expressed concern that many organizations would find it impossible to pay the increased spectrum royalty charges. The Community Radio Forum has already boycotted one policy consultation held by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, on 9th and 10 May.
Several community radio stations also observed a 'Day of Silence' on 9 May, where the spectrum fee hike was announced, protest songs were broadcast, community views were invited, and transmission was switched off for the rest of the day. The spectrum fee was Rs. To see details and descriptions on each of the individual operational community radio stations, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting prepares a compendium on Community radio, which is also available and published on their website.
By Junethe government had received more than one thousand applications and of them got the Letters of intent LOI.
While the initial phase saw more stations in educational campuses an analysis of the LOIs brings out the fact that two thirds of the LOIs have gone to civil society organisations. They find it difficult to launch the station, due to lack of funds, training, human resources and the difficulty in getting the frequency cleared by the WPC wing of the Ministry of Telecommunications. A paper was prepared and circulated among operational stations and a consensus on the role of the association, its structure, objectives etc.
The salient features of the CRA are: Even though CRA is only two years old its contribution and the role of its members in building an environment in favour of community Radio has been substantive.
Some of its members have been representing the movement in international forums and reiterating the power of the Community radio. They have been supporting the growth of this movement in countries of both Europe and Africa. Since CRA is a member based organisation, all its members have been running community radio stations, in diverse regions and dialects, together they bring to the table a mine of resources and experience. The strength of CRA is its network of experienced radio practitioners, who manifest the mandate of the Community Radio.
It is the only network in this sector, which is totally democratic and allows space for dissent, as there is nothing homogeneous about any community. If we try to total up the experience of each member radio station- which are now 92 in all, then it would amount to a huge figure.
The reach of this radio station together is to over 4 million people. There have been workshops and meetings in all the zones, wherein members have come together and shared their challenges and achievements. With a mission to promote, encourage, support and facilitate all functional and desirous Community Radio Stations in India and abroad, CRA has already hosted seven workshops for the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
The participation of the desirous Community Radio Operators was tremendous.
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The quality and content of the workshops was well thought out, and inspiring. Over 90 percent of the participants gave Letters of Intent on the last day. CRA led the entire campaign against the rise in the Licenese fee. Members of the organisation met with the Minister, Mr Kapil Sibbal, personally and handed over the petition that was signed by all its members.
CRA worked closely with CRF on this issue, and also organised a meeting with the then Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Ms Ambika Soni, who took up the issue of the hike in fees with the concerned department. CRA members are part of the screening committee for new stations.
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CRA members were also the pioneers in developing a proposal for the incorporation of a Community Radio Peer Review to strengthen and support the operations of already existing community radio stations through cross learning and sharing. CRA is working on different training modules for capacity building in CR and disaster management, sustainability, knowledge sharing, mobilizing communities for health care, collaboration on non-formal learning and education programmes.
Edaa is a web-based service that uploads the content  of radio stations. Edaa is South Asia's biggest community produced audio bank and hosts more than 2, radio programmes in 28 different South Asian languages categorised under 33 thematic areas. Early stations were represented by the National Association of Community-Radio Broadcasters, which in published a guide to setting up new stations. There are 24 licensed stations in Ireland.
In the licensed stations formed a co-operative CRAOL as a representative group inwith the stations as shareholders. Innew membership categories were created for aspiring stations, and a "Development Ladder" established to aid new stations in their development. Bythere were 42 aspiring stations at various stages of development. The Broadcasting Act provided a legal definition of community radio, which previously had been determined by the Community Radio Policy of the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland now the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland.
The Act also provided for the availability of a day licence within a month period for aspiring groups who meet the legal definition. An Agreement for Mutual Co-operation was established in by CRAOL; this ensures that the signatories which include all fully licensed stations share successful funding applications, training materials and policies.
This has led to a significant increase in networking and information-sharing. The agreement also covered the sharing of programming, and a network website facilitates these activities through a resource bank and online programme exchange. Community radio stations in Ireland encompass stations serving a geographic community or a community of interest such as campus stations, Christian and Irish-language stations.
The pace of such training has increased since mid, with 95 percent of CRAOL member stations involved. Stations are located in all four provinces of Ireland; however, coverage is not universal. Dublin has the largest number of stations, and there are significant clusters in north and west Connaught and mid- Munster. Community radio in Ireland encompasses: Participation by communities in creation of programming Product: Service provided to the community through programming supplied The combination of process and product is determined by the needs of the community, and implemented through a management structure controlled by the community.
Japan[ edit ] Japan has a network of low-power community radio stations across the country. It was institutionalized in Currently Septemberabout stations exist. Jordan[ edit ] The first community radio AmmanNet. AmmanNet has also been involved in the training of two other community radio stations in Jordan: AmmanNet is also involved in training Arab media activists in internet radio.