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He won, taking office on October 12, The age of the gaucho had ended, and the age of the merchant and cattleman had begun.
Sarmiento's tour of the United States had given him many new ideas about politics, democracy, and the structure of society, especially when he was the Argentine ambassador to the country from to He found New Englandspecifically the Boston - Cambridge area to be the source of much of his influence, writing in an Argentine newspaper that New England was "the cradle of the modern republic, the school for all of America.
Europe contemplates in New England the power which in the future will supplant her. As Rock reports, "between and educational subsidies from the central government to the provinces quadrupled. Inhe conducted Argentina's first national census. In the war against Paraguay, Sarmiento's adopted son was killed. On August 22,Sarmiento was the target of an unsuccessful assassination attempt, when two Italian anarchist brothers shot at his coach. That same year, he became the Senator for San Juan, a post that he held untilwhen he became Interior Minister.Noticiero Judicial: Historia de las Constituciones - Proyecto Constitucional de 1826
Pedro IIthe Emperor of Brazil and a great admirer of Sarmiento, sent to his funeral procession a green and gold crown of flowers with a message written in Spanish remembering the highlights of his life: The statue of Sarmiento when being unveiled in Sarmiento was well known for his modernization of the country, and for his improvements to the educational system. He firmly believed in democracy and European liberalism, but was most often seen as a romantic.
He did, however, see pitfalls to liberty, pointing for example to the aftermath of the French Revolutionwhich he compared to Argentina's own May Revolution. Therefore, his use of the term "liberty" was more in reference to a laissez-faire approach to the economy, and religious liberty. He put great importance on law and citizen participation. These ideas he most equated to Rome and to the United States, a society which he viewed as exhibiting similar qualities.
In order to civilize the Argentine society and make it equal to that of Rome or the United States, Sarmiento believed in eliminating the caudillos, or the larger landholdings and establishing multiple agricultural colonies run by European immigrants.
He opened a number of schools including the first school in Latin America for teachers in Santiago in La Escuela Normal Preceptores de Chile. Written during his long exile in Chile. Originally published in in Chile in installments in El Progreso newspaper, Facundo is Sarmiento's most famous work.
It was first published in book form inand the first English translation, by Mary Mann, appeared in Facundo promotes further civilization and European influence on Argentine culture through the use of anecdotes and references to Juan Facundo QuirogaArgentine caudillo general. As well as being a call to progress, Sarmiento discusses the nature of Argentine peoples as well as including his thoughts and objections to Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires from to and again fromdue to the turmoil generated by Facundo's death, to As literary critic Sylvia Molloy observes, Sarmiento claimed that this book helped explain Argentine struggles to European readers, and was cited in European publications.
Facundo maintains its relevance in modern-day as well, bringing attention to the contrast of lifestyles in Latin America, the conflict and struggle for progress while maintaining tradition, as well as the moral and ethical treatment of the public by government officials and regimes. In this second autobiography, Sarmiento displays a stronger effort to include familial links and ties to his past, in contrast to Mi defensa, choosing to relate himself to San Juan and his Argentine heritage.
Sarmiento discusses growing up in rural Argentina with basic ideologies and simple livings. Recuerdos discusses his Similar to Facundo, Sarmiento uses previous dossiers filed against himself by enemies to assist in writing Recuerdos and therefore fabricating an autobiography based on these files and from his own memory. Sarmiento's persuasion in this book is substantial. The accounts, whether all true or false against him, are a source of information to write Recuerdos as he is then able to object and rectify into what he creates as a 'true account' of autobiography.
The following is a selection of his other works: His military appointment was rejected by Mariano Moreno. Career[ edit ] Rivadavia was active in both the Argentine resistance to the British invasion of and in the May Revolution movement for Argentine Independence in InRivadavia became the dominant member of the governing triumvirate as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War.
Until its fall in Octoberthis government focused on creating a strong central government, moderating relations with Spainand organizing an army. By the Spanish King Ferdinand VII had returned to the throne and started the Absolutist Restorationwhich had grave consequences for the governments in the Americas. They sought to promote the crowning of Francisco de Paulason of Charles IV of Spainas regent of the United Provinces, but in the end he refused to act against the interests of the King of Spain.
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The diplomatic mission was a failure, both in Spain and in Britain. He visited France as well, and returned to Buenos Aires inat their friends' request. He sought to promote a similar development in Buenos Aires, and invited many people to move to the city.
Over the next five years, he exerted a strong influence, and focused heavily on improving the city of Buenos Airesoften at the expense of greater Argentina. Then he proceeded south along the coast to the tip of the continent and passed through the strait that now bears his name. He sailed into the ocean which he named the Pacific.
The voyage established Magellan as the foremost navigator in history. For the first time the globe was circled and the vast expanse of the Pacific was revealed. No longer could America be regarded as an outlying part of Asia. Spain and Portugal each claimed that the rich Spice Islands of the East lay within its allotted territory. Spain's westward route was so much longer than Portugal's eastern route that Spain could not profit from the trade.
In Spain surrendered to Portugal its claims in Asia and received the Philippine Islands in return. Magellan's voyage thus failed to break Portugal's supremacy in the Orient. The earliest settlements were in the West Indies. Hispaniola had the first towns. Santo Domingo, established inbecame the first capital of New Spain.
Other settlements rose in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. From island harbors sailed expeditions to explore the coasts and penetrate the continents. They found gold, silver, and precious stones and enslaved the Indians. Ambitious men became governors of conquered lands.
Missionaries brought a new religion to the Indians. He landed on a new shore that he called Florida. He was interested in exploration and slave trading. He also wanted to find a fabled fountain whose waters made men perpetually young. A few years later Francisco Pizarro with a small force vanquished the Inca empire and seized the treasure of Peru in South America see Pizarro.
Gold and silver from these lands poured into the Spanish king's treasury, rousing the envy of other rulers. The treasure ships attracted bloodthirsty pirates and privateers see Pirates and Piracy. Spanish and Portuguese in North America Other Spanish conquerors called in Spanish conquistadores turned north to the lands now forming the southern part of the United States.
From there he trekked overland to the Mississippi. He wandered into what is now Arkansas and Oklahoma and later floated down the Arkansas River to its mouth.
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In he died and was buried in the Mississippi see De Soto. Indian traditions and stories of Spanish wanderers told that somewhere north of Mexico the golden towers of the Seven Cities of Cibola gleamed in the sun. Francisco de Coronado, governor of a province in western Mexico, set out in to find them. He crossed the deserts and plains between what is now western New Mexico and central Kansas, but he found only poor Indian towns, which have become known as pueblos. Coronado returned to Mexico without gold and jewels.
Although Coronado had traveled well into the heart of North America, the Spaniards did not care to explore further the disappointing lands he had seen see Coronado. His descriptions suggested there was little mineral wealth there and thus led the Spaniards to consider this region far less valuable than the lands they had in the south.
Thus they ignored the greater part of the East coast of North America. The Portuguese made one important discovery in this northern region.
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His voyages were not repeated, for Portugal soon needed all of its resources to develop its East India empire and its colony in Brazil. English Seamen England's first port for mariners sailing west was the city of Bristol. Bristol merchants hoped that if a new route to the Orient lay directly west across the Atlantic, their city would become the principal trade center. In they sent John Cabot, a Genoese sea captain, in search of this new passage.
Cabot touched land between Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and returned believing that he had visited the outlying parts of Asia. In Gilbert sailed to establish a base in Newfoundland but died on the way home in Two other captains, Martin Frobisher and John Davis, each made three voyages between and to the network of straits and inlets north of the St.
Lawrence River, but neither could find a way to the Pacific.
In the company sent George Weymouth to find a passage through the continent to the Pacific Ocean, but he did not sail beyond Labrador. Another expedition the same year, under Bartholomew Gosnold, explored the New England coast. When the Virginia Colony was founded inJohn Smith and other settlers hoped to find a waterway across the country that would lead them to the Pacific. England also wanted to weaken Spain as a European power.
In the s England had established a national Protestant church. Spain wished to restore the pope's authority over England. The Spanish military was largely supported by the gold and silver from Mexico and Peru. Another source of revenue was the high duty levied on the Spanish traders, who held a monopoly on bringing black slaves into Spanish colonies.
He made three such voyages and reaped huge profits. On his third voyage he was attacked by a Spanish fleet and lost all but two ships. Drake realized that England could gain more by seizing Spanish treasure in the West Indies than by smuggling slaves. He sailed to the Caribbean Sea on a raiding expedition, but he won little spoil. Knowing that the Spanish ships and ports on the Pacific were unprotected, he sailed from England, passed through the Strait of Magellan, and fell upon the Spaniards off Chile and Peru.
He took so much plunder that he used silver for ballast. He sailed across the Pacific and followed the route of Magellan's party back to Europe. The English raids on the Spaniards in America helped plunge the two nations into open war. In the great Spanish Armada preparing to invade England was completely crushed see Armada, Spanish. Englishmen began to search for gold in their own holdings in North America. He was wrong, but for a time England thought it was on the track of great wealth.
Walter Raleigh sent out parties between and to explore and colonize the area named Virginia, but his ventures failed see Raleigh, Walter. Francis I, king of France, wanted a share of the Oriental trade to finance his armies. Hoping to accomplish this, he commissioned a Florentine navigator, Giovanni da Verrazano, to find a passage to Asia. In Verrazano touched the American coast at North Carolina and then sailed north to Newfoundland.
His report to the king contained the first description of the northeastern coast of North America and gave France its claim to American lands. The next French explorer was Jacques Cartier. He made three voyages between and in quest of the Asia route.
He ascended the St. Lawrence as far as the site of Montreal see Cartier. After Cartier's voyages, a series of religious wars at home stopped France from sending out other parties.
France made attempts, however, to establish two colonies as refuges for the Huguenots French Protestants.
One colony, in Brazil —58was destroyed by the Portuguese. The other, in Florida —65was wiped out by the Spaniards. Starting aboutFrench fishermen annually fished off the Newfoundland coast and in the Gulf of St. Under the vigorous rule of Henry IV — France was again united and at peace with the rest of the world. Once more French explorers began to seek a strait to the Pacific. For years the Dutch struggled to win their independence from Spain.
During this struggle, Spain in annexed Portugal and gained control of the Oriental trade. The Dutch realized that Spain might be weakened by striking at its trade. The major European states—England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Holland—vied with one another for nearly four centuries to gain economic advantages in overseas territories.
The New World, consisting of North and South America and the islands of the Caribbean Sea, was viewed as an enormous wilderness area with great economic potential.
The native Americans, called Indians, were not considered to be owners of the new lands; they were looked upon, rather, as primitives or savages who could benefit from the introduction of European civilization and religion. Spain and Portugal were the first to enter the New World competition. Spain claimed and settled most of Central and South America, Florida, the Southwestern region of the present United States, and several islands in the Caribbean.
France colonized Canada; the valleys of the St. Portugal gained control of Brazil. Sweden laid claim to the Delaware River valley in North America. England eventually planted 13 colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America, settled British Honduras now Belize in Central America, and took possession of several Caribbean islands.
Many of these colonies were financed by European-based trading companies. These companies sought riches in the crops, furs, and minerals of the New World. Trading groups were granted large areas of land by European governments, which expected in return some of the riches of the Americas, as well as secure settlements to uphold their territorial claims. The managers of the colonies worked their lands with servants, slaves, or tenant farmers.
Colonizing nations fought among themselves and against native Indian peoples for control of the land and its trading possibilities. Wars in Europe had their counterparts in nationalistic rivalries among American colonists. Cutthroat pirates and buccaneers hid out in the Caribbean, threatening shipments of gold and other riches from the New World to the Old.
It was not until the 19th century that most colonial disputes were ended either by treaty or by national independence movements. The European colonists developed untamed wilderness lands into farms, villages, and cities.
They established governments, legislatures, schools, colleges, churches, and businesses. Above all, they braved a hostile environment to lay the foundations of the many nations of the Western Hemisphere. It comprised the largest of the Caribbean islands—Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico—as well as The Bahamas and other smaller islands; all of Mexico and most of Central America; large sections of east-coastal South America except for Brazil; Florida; and the Southwestern quarter of what is now the United States.
Spain was the first of the European nations to colonize the New World. Spain had the advantage of nearly a full century to stake its claims. By the larger Caribbean islands had been occupied. The rich finds of gold and silver Cortez found in Mexico prompted expeditions north and south of the region.
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Five years after Pizarro set out to conquer the Inca kingdom of Peru, inthe conquest of the Chibcha Indians of Colombia was undertaken. In a group of French Protestants settled in northern Florida. His expedition arrived in Florida indestroyed the French settlement, and built a fort on the site of what is now St. Augustine see Saint Augustine. Colonization of the region north of Mexico did not begin until very late in the 16th century.
In a group of settlers arrived in the New Mexico—Arizona area. Most of them, finding the climate and Indians inhospitable, returned to Mexico by ; but at least a small start had been made in the colonization of New Mexico. The city of Santa Fe was founded in see Santa Fe. Spain's other outposts in North America, Texas and California, were not colonized until the s. By Texas was little more than a collection of small missions and the towns of San Antonio and Nacogdoches. The settlement of California was more successful.
More than 20 missions were founded between andaugmented by a number of presidios, or army posts. To regulate its American empire, Spain created two organizations, the House of Trade to deal with commerce and the Council of the Indies to make laws. The system of colonization was called the viceroyalty, a system begun in when Antonio de Mendoza was sent to govern Mexico. The viceroys, responsible to the king, were the chief colonial officials.
Under them were the proprietors, charged with the direct administration of the colonies. There were four major viceroyalties. New Spain, including all of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean islands, had been set up as an administrative region in New Castile, established incomprised the west coast of South America except for the southernmost section and much of present-day Argentina. New Granada, the northern area of South America, was organized in It was in fact a system for enslaving the Indians.
Indians were regarded as subject to the proprietors of New Spain, who, theoretically at least, cared for their physical and spiritual needs in return for the right to their labor. In practice, Indians were often abused and exploited. While some Spanish friars and priests condemned such slavery as early aslandowners resisted the movement to abolish the encomienda.
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Indians living in areas controlled by the Spanish died in great numbers from exploitation and diseases, such as smallpox, from which they had no immunity. The Indians of the Caribbean virtually disappeared; the estimated 50 million aborigines living in mainland New Spain at the time of its colonization had dwindled by the 17th century to only 4 million.
These priests often led the movement into frontier areas. There they established educational institutions and religious missions while bringing the culture of European Spain into the wilds of California, Florida, and Mexico. In Florida alone, some 38 missions were founded by Spain's colonies north of the Rio Grande were lost to the United States in the 19th century. Florida was given up inand war with Mexico brought the Southwest territories into the hands of the United States government in see Mexican War.
Spain's holdings in Mexico, Central America, and South America were lost between and through a series of revolutionary movements.
The end to colonialism was prompted by a variety of factors. The American and French revolutions in the late 18th century inspired other peoples to strive for self-determination. The immediate impetus to decolonization came in the Napoleonic Wars in Europe between and French occupation of Spain and Portugal in served to isolate the American colonies from the mother countries.
This isolation, coupled with long-smoldering discontent in Latin America, led to the formation of nationalist and revolutionary movements. Spain and Portugal, on the other hand, were too weakened by war at home to respond forcefully to troubles in the Americas. They could not count on help from Great Britain in retaining their colonies.
British merchants were eager to trade with the newly independent nations of Latin America, which would not have colonial trade restrictions. Induring the presidency of James Monroe, the United States promulgated the Monroe Doctrine declaring against any further colonization or interference by Europe in the affairs of the Americas.
With the help of the British navy, this doctrine forestalled any new colonial enterprises for several decades see Monroe Doctrine. Portugal in America Although the Portuguese were among the earliest and most prominent world explorers, their efforts in the New World centered entirely on Brazil. After the first discoveries of Spain and Portugal of the Western Hemisphere, a conflict arose between the two countries concerning colonization rights to the New World.
In a north-south Line of Demarcation was established at leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands: This agreement was called the Treaty of Tordesillas. Although the signers of the pact were not yet aware of the extent of the Western Hemisphere, by chance it happened that the region of coastal Brazil in South America became the possession of Portugal.
Brazil was discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral in The new land was of little interest to Portugal until when the threat of a French or Spanish incursion prompted King John III to order the surveying and settling of the Brazilian coastal region.
Brazil was divided into capitanias, strips of land individually colonized by a proprietor called a donatario.