Inti Raymi - Wikipedia
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According to archaeologists, in this area was fought the last battle that defined victory over the Chancas, covering prestigious victory and gave power to the Inca Pachacutec.
Inca Pachacutec was the first to emerge beyond the valley of Cusco after his epic victory over the Chancas. He conducted the Tahuantinsuyo expansion and recognized it as the "constructor" of Cusco. This was one of his greatest works.
The origin of Machu Picchu is attributed with some certainty to Pachacutec, embattled president, which was characterized by territorial conquests, and the development of religion and spirituality. From today there is archaeological studies supportting the theory gods and a challenge to the ruler to built skills. Built as a refuge for the elite of the Incas aristocracy, the fortress was located on the eastern slopes of the Vilcanota mountain range, about 80 miles from Cusco, the capital of the empire.
Its strategic location was chosen with admirable success.
Surrounded by steep cliffs and away from the sight of strangers in a tangled forest, the citadel of Machu Picchu had the quality of having only one narrow entrance, allowing, in case of a surprise attack,to be defended by very few warriors. Occupied by at least three generations of Incas, Machu Picchu was abandoned in a sudden and mysterious decision.
The strongest hypothesis explain his disappearance from the historical memory because that Machu Picchu was unknown to the lower castes and their routes prohibited for anyone who was not part of the small circle of the Inca. Natural beauty, mild climate one of the best in the Andes and rich soil, Pachacutec noticed Tampu favorite settlement of the new imperial nobility, gracing the valley with several of the most magnificent cities Tahuantinsuyo as Ollantaytambo and Machu Picchu.
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Site selection for lifting Machu Picchu must have been made with great care, as it was, and still is, a great place to raise a ceremonial center. Furthermore, according to their research, the place had a quarry nearby that could provide the finest white granite stones. July 24th, is known as the date of the "discovery" of the famous Inca citadel of Machu Picchu, architectural treasure that had been hidden for more than four centuries under the lush nature of the Urubamba canyon.
This discovery was made by controversial anthropologist, historian or simply by the American explorer, amateur archeology, Yale University professor Hiram Bingham.
And also because the English archaeologist was looking in that moment at Vitco City, the last refuge of the Incas and the last point of resistance against the Spanish. So the discovery of Bingham would reduce the spread of the fact to science.
However, to its main protagonist until this day was not the result of chance, but a strenuous investigation based on information supplied by peasants, as well as several years of travel and exploration in the area. Palma ,Sanchez and Lizarraga found the indigenous Anacleto living in the place. Alvarez, who had cultivated the land during eight years ago was leased for twelve soles annually.
This registration would have been subsequently deleted. Bingham, very interested in these rumors, began the search for these ruins, reaching Machu Picchu in Cuzco. There, the American historian would find two families, the Recharte and Alvarez, who had settled in the platforms of the south of the ruins. It was finally a child of the family who guided Recharte Bingham to the "urban area" of the ruins, which was covered by thick undergrowth. Immediately, Bingham understood the enormous historical value of the ruins discovered and contacted Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian government, requesting sponsorship to start the studies in the Inca archaeological site.
The archaeological work was carried out from to In this period, they managed to clear the weeds that outrigger the Citadel and the Inca tombs were excavated being found beyond the city walls.
InNational Geographic magazine published in an extensive article of Machu Picchu and the jobs that were done there, revealing to the world the citadel. With the passing of the years, the importance of tourism in the citadel of Machu Picchu would grow, first nationally and then internationally, becoming a World Heritage Site by Unesco in Increasing tourism, the development of nearby towns and environmental degradation continue to take their toll on the site, which is also home to several endangered species.
As a result, the Peruvian government has taken steps to protect the ruins and prevent erosion of the mountainside in recent years. The city of Machu Picchu conserved many of its original structures, expressed on the zones that were chosen by Pachacutec, he found a granite plateau where many people started a very expensive and ambitious project, built a citadel that would last forever.
They knew how to take advantage of the ground that sometimes was so difficult to measure and prevent earthquakes and other calamities. The use of stones like Basalt, andesite and many other kind of stones that made it so resistant for many natural disasters.Los Mayas en Dibujos Animados / 2012
These stones were brought from a place called the Batholitic of Vilcabamba, where all the stones were cut and brought to the Sanctuary and also to build the city of Cusco when the Spanish conquer arrived to these sites. The constructions made in Machu Picchu, correspond to a specific kind of mandate of the Pachacutec Inca, who wants to preserved the environment and the ecology. It is well known that the Incas never knew the wheel, but it is not hard to understand that in this place the wheel never worked because of the land and the inclination of the site, because many people say that how is that possible that few men could bring from a long distance huge blocks of stone already cut so perfectly that when they were put on top of each other, not even a hair could pass between them.
Every construction made in Machu Picchu has a specific function: Religious, administrative, politic and social, the two most important was the religious and the administrative, because the religious part was the everyday ritual of their life and transit over Machu Picchu, and the administrative part,was because every product must pass by the control of the guardians that kept very safe the Sanctuary and the Tambos, the storages that kept all of the products that grew in the Citadel.
During that time, only water, uncooked corn, and chucam were eaten.
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At dawn on the June solstice, they gathered in the Haucaypata, took off their shoes, and faced northeast in anticipation of the rising sun. When the sun appeared, they would crouch down and blow respectful kisses, before raising two golden cups of chicha. The left cup was offered to the Sun, while the right cup was shared amongst the Sapa Inca and his retinue. From the plaza, they walked to the Coricanchafor the sacrifice of llamas, and in some cases, children.
The ceremony was also said to indicate the mythical origin of the Incas. It lasted for nine days and was filled with colorful dances and processions, as well as animal sacrifices to thank Pachamama and to ensure a good harvest season. The first Inti Raymi was in The last Inti Raymi with the Inca Emperor's presence was carried out inafter which the Spanish and the Catholic priests banned it. Ina historical reconstruction of the Inti Raymi was directed by Faustino Espinoza Navarro and indigenous actors.